23 May 2019 Pervasive Resistance to Pyrethroids in German Cockroaches (Blattodea: Ectobiidae) Related to Lack of Efficacy of Total Release Foggers
Zachary C. DeVries, Richard G. Santangelo, Jonathan Crissman, Alonso Suazo, Madhavi L. Kakumanu, Coby Schal
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Despite limited efficacy data, do-it-yourself (DIY) insecticide products often promise low-cost alternatives to professional pest control. Total release foggers (TRFs, ‘bug bombs’), which are prominent DIY products, were recently shown to be ineffective at reducing German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations, in contrast to highly effective baits. However, the reason(s) for TRF failure remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated insecticide resistance of apartment-collected cockroaches from homes where TRFs failed. In topical (direct) application assays, resistance to cypermethrin (a common active ingredient in TRFs) was 202 ± 33 times that of a laboratory insecticide-susceptible population (based on LD50 ratios), while resistance to fipronil, a common bait active ingredient, was considerably lower at 14 ± 2 times that of the laboratory insecticide-susceptible population. The addition of PBO, a P450 inhibitor that synergizes pyrethroids, enhanced the efficacy of cypermethrin, but only at high doses of cypermethrin. Additionally, >96% of screened cockroaches possessed at least one copy of the L993F mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (knockdown resistance, kdr). Because TRF treatments killed insecticide-susceptible sentinel cockroaches but failed to kill apartment-collected cockroaches, these results suggest that pyrethroid resistance is a major factor contributing to the failure of TRFs. Multiple mechanisms of resistance, including metabolic detoxification of the pyrethroids and kdr mutations that confer target-site insensitivity, suggest that TRFs would lack efficacy against German cockroaches in residential settings, where high levels of pyrethroid resistance have been documented globally.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Zachary C. DeVries, Richard G. Santangelo, Jonathan Crissman, Alonso Suazo, Madhavi L. Kakumanu, and Coby Schal "Pervasive Resistance to Pyrethroids in German Cockroaches (Blattodea: Ectobiidae) Related to Lack of Efficacy of Total Release Foggers," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(5), 2295-2301, (23 May 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz120
Received: 3 March 2019; Accepted: 8 April 2019; Published: 23 May 2019
JOURNAL ARTICLE
7 PAGES

This article is only available to subscribers.
It is not available for individual sale.
+ SAVE TO MY LIBRARY

KEYWORDS
cypermethrin
do-it-yourself pest control
kdr
topical application
RIGHTS & PERMISSIONS
Get copyright permission
Back to Top