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18 May 2019 Susceptibility of North Dakota Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to 31 H Genes Mediating Wheat Resistance
Kirk M. Anderson, Marion O. Harris
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The agricultural landscape of North Dakota is changing. Corn and soybean are now commonplace, but once were rare. Spring sown wheat Triticum aestivum L. and durum wheat Triticum turgidum spp. durum continue to be dominant, but more winter-sown wheat is expected in the future. The presence of wheat in the landscape throughout much of the year will benefit populations of the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), which occurs throughout the state, sometimes in large numbers. Hessian fly is unusual among crop pests for which resources for plant resistance are well developed. On wheat genotypes expressing a single effective H resistance gene, 100% of larvae die before exhibiting any growth. Over 35 H genes in the public domain are available for crossing into elite cultivars. We explored the effectiveness of 31 Hessian fly resistance genes for a North Dakota Hessian fly population. Six genes—H4, H15, H21, H23, H26, and H29—caused 100% larval mortality. Seven others caused at least 80% mortality. Experimental data were used to address three additional questions. Do adult females avoid laying eggs on plants that will kill their offspring: Are neonate larvae able to detect resistance that will end up killing them? Do all 31 genes confer equal protection against larval-induced growth deficits? North Dakota wheat breeders have the necessary tools to create highly resistant wheat cultivars. So far, H genes have been deployed singly in cultivars. Advances in plant breeding will enable gene stacking, a more durable strategy over time.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Kirk M. Anderson and Marion O. Harris "Susceptibility of North Dakota Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to 31 H Genes Mediating Wheat Resistance," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(5), 2398-2406, (18 May 2019).
Received: 8 March 2019; Accepted: 11 April 2019; Published: 18 May 2019

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Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
plant resistance
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