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22 April 2021 Alternative Formulations of Trap Lures for Operational Detection, Population Monitoring, and Outbreak Forecasting of Southern Pine Beetle in the United States
Brian T. Sullivan, William P. Shepherd, John T. Nowak, Stephen R. Clarke, Paul R. Merten, Ronald F. Billings, William W. Upton, John J. Riggins, Cavell Brownie
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Abstract

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a major destructive pest of Pinus L. In the southeastern United States, numbers of this species and a major predator, Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), captured during an annual springtime trapping survey are used to make forecasts of the likelihood and severity of an outbreak during the following summer. We investigated responses by both species to six lure formulations to evaluate their suitability for the survey and allow integration of historical data sets produced with differing lure compositions. Trapping trials were performed at four locations across three states (Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama) during spring, and at these and one additional location (North Carolina) in fall 2016. All lures included the pheromone component frontalin. Southern pine beetle preferred lures that additionally included the pheromone component endo-brevicomin and turpentine as a source of host odors (rather than a 7:3 mixture of monoterpenes alpha- and beta-pinene). Thanasimus dubius displayed little discrimination among lure compositions. Lure preferences by southern pine beetle did not differ significantly among locations in spring but were influenced by season. Gas chromatography (GC)-electroantennographic detection analyses with southern pine beetle and GC-mass spectrometry identified numerous known and potential semiochemicals that distinguished volatiles released by the tested host odor devices. The lure combination that included endo-brevicomin and alpha/beta-pinene is recommended for the trapping survey because of its high sensitivity for southern pine beetle and potential for greater data integrity resulting from its reproducible composition.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2021. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Brian T. Sullivan, William P. Shepherd, John T. Nowak, Stephen R. Clarke, Paul R. Merten, Ronald F. Billings, William W. Upton, John J. Riggins, and Cavell Brownie "Alternative Formulations of Trap Lures for Operational Detection, Population Monitoring, and Outbreak Forecasting of Southern Pine Beetle in the United States," Journal of Economic Entomology 114(3), 1189-1200, (22 April 2021). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab062
Received: 14 January 2021; Accepted: 8 March 2021; Published: 22 April 2021
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