Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval parasitoid that has been mass-reared for augmentative biological control against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Hawaii and other regions. To improve performance of female wasps in biological control programs, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate male wasp reproductive performance and its role in female reproductive success. The results showed that D. tryoni males remained close to the emergence (release) site following release. Males emerged earlier than females and male's capacity to inseminate females reached the highest level (inseminated 9.2 ± 0.4 females/day) on the second day after eclosion in synchronization with female emergence peak; allowing males encountering most receptive females to enhance their mating success. Mating rates under normal rearing conditions (200 pairs per cage) reached optimum 100% insemination after 5 d. However, oviposition experience prior to mating impaired female's receptivity as a percentage of inseminated females reduced to 17.5 ± 4.8%, while 70.0 ± 4.1% females without prior oviposition experience accepted mating. Mating reduced male's survivorship and the potential lifetime fecundity of females, although multiple mating increased percentage of female offspring. Overall, influence of male density on the female oviposition rate and offspring sex ratio was not detected under captive rearing conditions. These results suggest that local and early mating is important for male's reproductive success and females must be allowed to mate before they are exposed to hosts or released in the field to achieve their full reproductive potential.