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8 October 2021 Spatial Variation in Australian Neonicotinoid Usage and Priorities for Resistance Monitoring
James L. Maino, Alexander Cushen, Roozbeh Valavi, Paul A. Umina
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Australia is the third largest exporting country of cereals and a leader in other major commodity crops, yet little data exist on pesticide usage patterns in agriculture. This knowledge gap limits the management of off-target chemical impacts, such as the evolution of pesticide resistance. Here, for the first time, we quantify spatial patterns in neonicotinoid applications in Australia by coalescing land use data with sales and market research data contributed by agrichemical and agribusiness companies. An example application to resistance management is explored through the development of recommendations for the cosmopolitan crop pest, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), utilizing spatial statistical models. This novel dataset identified Australian neonicotinoid usage patterns, with most neonicotinoid products in Australia applied as cereal, canola, cotton and legume seed treatments and soil applications in sugarcane. Importantly, there were strong regional differences in pesticide applications, which will require regionally specific strategies to manage off-target impacts. Indeed, the estimated spatial grid of neonicotinoid usage demonstrated a statistically significant influence on the distribution of M. persicae neonicotinoid resistance, indicating off-target impacts are unevenly distributed in space. Future research on neonicotinoid usage will be supported by the spatial grids generated and made available through this study. Overall, neonicotinoid pesticides are widely relied upon throughout Australia's plant production systems but will face increasing pressure from resistance evolution, emerging research on off-target impacts, and stricter regulatory pressures.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
James L. Maino, Alexander Cushen, Roozbeh Valavi, and Paul A. Umina "Spatial Variation in Australian Neonicotinoid Usage and Priorities for Resistance Monitoring," Journal of Economic Entomology 114(6), 2524-2533, (8 October 2021).
Received: 24 June 2021; Accepted: 11 September 2021; Published: 8 October 2021

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