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11 January 2024 Treatment of waxborne honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) viruses using time, temperature, and electron-beam irradiation
Megan J. Colwell, Stephen F. Pernal, Robert W. Currie
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Viruses are one of many serious threats to honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health. There are many transmission routes for honey bee viruses, and there is potential for wax comb to act as a reservoir for transmission of viruses. Some work has been done on treating viruses on wax, focusing on irradiation as a potential treatment. However, irradiation is not universally available or economically viable for beekeepers in many regions. With increased colony deaths over winter beekeepers potentially risk further loss from reusing contaminated equipment from dead colonies. Here we explored the use of storage time and temperature on the reduction of waxborne virus levels from winter loss colony wax over 30 days and at –20, 5, and 20 °C. Furthermore, because irradiation has previously worked against waxborne viruses, we performed a dosage experiment with electron-beam irradiation. Winter loss wax was again used, and exposed to 10, 25, 35, and 45 kGy irradiation, including a nonirradiated transport control. Storage time decreased abundance of black queen cell virus and deformed wing virus at times equal or greater than 30 days but temperatures had no significant effect on virus levels. All irradiation doses decreased virus abundance and prevalence, yet only 35 and 45 kGy did so at a greater rate than the effect of transport alone.

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Megan J. Colwell, Stephen F. Pernal, and Robert W. Currie "Treatment of waxborne honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) viruses using time, temperature, and electron-beam irradiation," Journal of Economic Entomology 117(1), 34-42, (11 January 2024).
Received: 25 April 2023; Accepted: 21 October 2023; Published: 11 January 2024

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black queen cell virus
deformed wing virus
honey bee virus
Israeli acute paralysis virus
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