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25 November 2023 Alfalfa weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the western United States are resistant to multiple type II pyrethroid insecticides
Erika A. Rodbell, Christopher G. Caron, Silvia I. Rondon, M. Umer Masood, Kevin W. Wanner
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Abstract

The alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)), a key pest of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabacae)) across the US, has developed resistance to pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and zeta-cypermethrin in at least 6 western US states. Unfortunately, 6 pyrethroid active ingredients represent most commercial insecticides registered for alfalfa weevil control in forage alfalfa systems. Thus, the loss of efficacy of this mode of action group due to multiple resistance represents a significant agricultural challenge because of a limited registered alternative mode of actions. To evaluate the extent and severity of resistance among pyrethroids around the United States, laboratory bioassays using larvae from Arizona, California, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming, including both the Egyptian and western strains, were conducted. Results indicated that similar degrees of resistance among type II pyrethroids as determined by both laboratory bioassays and field trials exist. The LC50 values of alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin and zeta-cypermethrin produced significant correlations with the LC50 values of lambda-cyhalothrin. In contrast, resistance did not include type I pyrethroid, bifenthrin (registered for seed alfalfa production), whose LC50 values yielded a slope not significantly different from zero when correlated with lambda-cyhalothrin. Field trials conducted in Arizona, Montana, and Washington corroborated laboratory results, as commercial formulations with type II pyrethroid active ingredients failed to adequately control alfalfa weevils resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin. Integrated resistance management recommendations are discussed.

Erika A. Rodbell, Christopher G. Caron, Silvia I. Rondon, M. Umer Masood, and Kevin W. Wanner "Alfalfa weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the western United States are resistant to multiple type II pyrethroid insecticides," Journal of Economic Entomology 117(1), 280-292, (25 November 2023). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toad218
Received: 18 September 2023; Accepted: 22 November 2023; Published: 25 November 2023
JOURNAL ARTICLE
13 PAGES

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KEYWORDS
crop protection
Curculionidae
field crop
Forage crop
insecticide resistance
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