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5 January 2024 Enzymatic activity and development of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in response to exogenous calcium treatments of kidney bean plants
Xin-Yue Qiu, Wan-Qing Huang, Guang Zeng, Wen-Bo Yue, Chang-Yu Zhang, Jun-Rui Zhi
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Abstract

Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an agricultural pest threatening various horticultural crops worldwide. Inducing plant resistance is an ecologically beneficial and potentially effective method for controlling F. occidentalis. As an essential nutrient element, exogenous calcium enhances plant-induced resistance. This study investigated the effects of CaCl2 on the secondary metabolites of kidney bean plants and detoxifying and digestive enzymes in F. occidentalis. We found that treatment of plants and treatment time and also the interactions of the 2 factors significantly affected secondary metabolites contents (tannin, flavonoids, total phenol, alkaloid, and lignin) of kidney bean leaves, which indicated that that the effect of treatment of plants on secondary metabolites varied with treatment time. Moreover, when thrips fed on CaCl2-treated plants, the activities of detoxifying enzymes, enzymes glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 substantially increased compared to those in which thrips fed on control plants. However, the activity of carboxylesterase significantly decreased. The detoxifying enzyme genes CL992.contig6, CYP4PN1, and CYP4PJ2 were significantly upregulated at 24 and 48 h. The activities of digestive enzymes (α-amylase, chymotrypsin, and lipase) increased substantially in F. occidentalis. The digestive enzyme gene, FoAMY-1, was significantly upregulated at 24 and 48 h after treatment. The pupation rate and pupal weight of F. occidentalis were significantly reduced. The results indicated that exogenous CaCl2-induced metabolic changes in kidney bean plants and altered the enzymatic activity and development of F. occidentalis that fed upon them.

Xin-Yue Qiu, Wan-Qing Huang, Guang Zeng, Wen-Bo Yue, Chang-Yu Zhang, and Jun-Rui Zhi "Enzymatic activity and development of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in response to exogenous calcium treatments of kidney bean plants," Journal of Economic Entomology 117(1), 311-322, (5 January 2024). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toad241
Received: 12 September 2023; Accepted: 18 December 2023; Published: 5 January 2024
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KEYWORDS
enzyme activity
exogenous calcium
gene expression
inducible resistance
western flower thrips
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