Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) seasonal flight activity and abundance in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and the significance of aphid species as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus were studied over a nine-year period in the South Carolina coastal plain. Four aphid species colonized wheat in a consistent seasonal pattern. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki), colonized seedling wheat immediately after crop emergence, with apterous colonies usually peaking in December or January and then declining for the remainder of the season. These two aphid species are unlikely to cause economic loss on wheat in South Carolina, thus crop managers should not have to sample for the subterranean R. rufiabdominalis colonies. Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), was the second most abundant species and the most economically important. Rhopalosiphum padi colonies usually remained below 10/row-meter until peaking in February or March. Barley yellow dwarf incidence and wheat yield loss were significantly correlated with R. padi peak abundance and aphid-day accumulation on the crop. Based on transmission assays, R. padi was primarily responsible for vectoring the predominant virus serotype (PAV) we found in wheat. Pest management efforts should focus on sampling for and suppressing this aphid species. December planting reduced aphid-day accumulation and barley yellow dwarf incidence, but delayed planting is not a practical management option. English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), was the last species to colonize wheat each season, and the most abundant. Sitobion avenae was responsible for late-season virus transmission and caused direct yield loss by feeding on heads and flag leaves during an outbreak year.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 94 • No. 2