Response of overwintered plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to odor-baited traps was evaluated from the beginning until nearly the end of emigration from overwintering sites in woods. We evaluated clear sticky Plexiglas panels and black pyramid traps placed close to woods adjacent to apple trees in an unsprayed section of an orchard. Traps were baited with aggregation pheromone (grandisoic acid) alone or in combination with one of six synthetic fruit volatiles (benzaldehyde, decyl aldehyde, E-2-hexenal, ethyl isovalerate, hexyl acetate, or limonene). Unbaited traps served as a control treatment. Plum curculio emigration from woods was divided into early-, mid-, and late-season periods based primarily on phenological stage of apple bud and fruit development (tight cluster to bloom, petal fall, and fruit set, respectively). During both early- and late season, panel and pyramid traps baited with benzaldehyde plus pheromone were significantly more attractive than any other traps (baited or unbaited), except panel traps baited with ethyl isovalerate plus pheromone in early season, which likewise captured significantly more adults than unbaited panel traps. During midseason, no lures were significantly attractive, possibly due to prevailing cool weather, unfavorable for adult activity. Over the entire season, panel or pyramid traps baited with benzaldehyde plus pheromone captured nearly six times as many plum curculios as unbaited traps of each type, whereas traps baited with pheromone alone captured about twice as many as unbaited traps of each type. We provide information on sex ratio, female maturity stage, and mating status, and several weather parameters associated with trap captures. We conclude that panel or pyramid traps, or a combination, baited with benzaldehyde plus pheromone placed at borders of plum curculio overwintering sites can be a valuable tool for monitoring the beginning, peak, and end of adult immigration into apple orchards.
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Vol. 94 • No. 6