Two strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were selected using Cry1C protoxin and transgenic broccoli plants expressing a Cry1C toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Both strains were resistant to Cry1C but had different cross-resistance patterns. We used 12 Bt protoxins for cross-resistance tests, including Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Bb, Cry1C, Cry1D, Cry1E, Cry1F, Cry1J, Cry2Ab, Cry9Aa, and Cry9C. Compared with the unselected sister strain (BCS), the resistance ratio (RR) of one strain (BCS-Cry1C-1) to the Cry1C protoxin was 1,090-fold with high level of cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, and Cry1J (RR > 390-fold). The cross-resistance to Cry1A, Cry1F, and Cry1J in this strain was probably related to the Cry1A resistance gene(s) that came from the initial field population and was caused by intensive sprayings of Bt products containing Cry1A protoxins. The neonates of this strain can survive on transgenic broccoli plants expressing either Cry1Ac or Cry1C toxins. The other strain (BCS-Cry1C-2) was highly resistant to Cry1C but not cross-resistant to other Bt protoxins. The neonates of this strain can survive on transgenic broccoli expressing Cry1C toxin but not Cry1Ac toxin. The gene(s) conferring resistance to Cry1C segregates independently from Cry1Ac resistance in these strains. The toxicity of Cry1E and Cry2Ab protoxins was low to all of the three strains. The overall progress of all work has resulted in a unique model system to test the stacked genes strategy for resistance management of Bt transgenic crops.
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Vol. 94 • No. 6