In laboratory studies performed in the United States and Hungary, the dump fly Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) was reared successfully in manure of 1- to 8-wk-old dairy calves, and in manure from adult lactating dairy cows. Survival in manure collected from 1-wk-old calves was poor (7.2%), better in manure collected from 2- and 3-wk-old calves (53.5%), and best in manure collected from 4- to 8-wk-old calves (71.4%). Survival in cow manure was slightly lower (47.4%) than that in calf manure. Reasons for different rates of development in the United States and in Hungary, and by calf age are discussed as are implications for biological control.
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Vol. 95 • No. 2