The levels of resistance to insect pests in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm are quite low, and therefore, we screened 30 accessions of Arachis spp. and 12 derived lines for resistance to insect pests under field and greenhouse conditions. Accessions belonging to Arachis cardenasii, Arachis duranensis, Arachis kempff-mercadoi, Arachis monticola, Arachis stenosperma, Arachis paraguariensis, Arachis pusilla, and Arachis triseminata showed multiple resistance to the leaf miner Aproaerema modicella, Helicoverpa armigera, Empoasca kerri, and to rust, Puccnia arachidis Speg., and late leaf spot, Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. et Curt.). Arachis cardenasii (ICG 8216), Arachis ipaensis (ICG 8206), A. paraguariensis (ICG 8130), and Arachis appressipila (ICG 8946) showed resistance to leaf feeding and antibiosis to Spodoptera litura under no-choice conditions. Six lines, derived from wild relatives, showed resistance to H. armigera and S. litura, and/or leaf miner. Plant morphological characteristics such as main stem thickness, hypanthium length, leaflet shape and length, leaf hairiness, standard petal length and petal markings, basal leaflet width, main stem thickness and hairiness, stipule adnation length and width, and peg length showed significant correlation and/or regression coefficients with damage by H. armigera, S. litura, and leafhoppers, and these traits can possibly be used as markers to select for resistance to these insect pests. Principal component analysis placed the Arachis spp. accessions into five groups, and these differences can be exploited to diversify resistance to the target insect pests in groundnut.
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Vol. 96 • No. 6