After greenhouse and outdoor microplot experiments, a critical density of two third instars per microplot for third instars of European chafer, Rhizotrogus (Amphimallon) majalis (Razoumowsky), in corn, Zea mays L., was derived. On average, the number of missing or damaged plants increased ≈8% from zero to two larvae per 900 cm2. Furthermore, 23 fields in 2 yr were sampled for larvae along transects by using a golf cup cutter as the sampling tool and the critical density of 0.2 larva per sampling unit as the critical density. The sampling unit was one golf cup cutter with a diameter of 10.8 cm or 91.4 cm2 (10 sampling units ≈ 900 cm2 ≈ 1 foot2). Fieldwide means and variation were modeled to Taylor’s power law, a = 1.42 and b = 1.47, and 20 of 23 fields fit the negative binomial probability distribution. Wald’s formula for a sequential sampling plan was most accurate and least time-consuming, according to the operating characteristic and the average sample number function, relative to Iwao’s and converging lines formulae. Percentage of sand, topography, soil bulk density, and proximity to trees were measured as potential predictors of areas with high larval density. Percentage of sand and soil bulk density were significant predictors, and topography and proximity to trees were not significant predictors. Field areas where the percentage of sand is high and the soil bulk density is low to moderate or where the percentage of sand is moderate and the soil bulk density is low should be chosen as sampling locations.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 99 • No. 1