Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is one of the most serious nonnative invasive forest insects discovered in North America in recent years. A. glabripennis is regulated by federal quarantines in the United States and Canada and is the subject of eradication programs that involve locating, cutting, and chipping all infested trees. Other control methods are needed to aid in eradication and to form an integrated management program in the event eradication fails. We conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the toxicity of two systemic insecticides, azadirachtin and imidacloprid, for potential control of A. glabripennis and the cottonwood borer, Plectrodera scalator (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a closely related native cerambycid. Larvae of both cerambycid species were fed artificial diet with dilutions of azadirachtin or imidacloprid for 14 wk. Both insecticides exhibited strong antifeedant effects and some toxicity against A. glabripennis and P. scalator larvae. For A. glabripennis, the highest larval mortality at the end of the bioassay was 60% for larvae fed artificial diet treated with azadirachtin (50 ppm) or imidacloprid (1.6 ppm). For P. scalator, the highest larval mortality at the end of the bioassay was 100% for larvae fed artificial diet treated with azadirachtin (50 ppm) or imidacloprid (160 ppm). At 14 wk, the LC50 values for P. scalator were 1.58 and 1.78 ppm for azadirachtin and imidacloprid, respectively. Larvae of both species gained weight when fed diet treated with formulation blanks (inert ingredients) or the water control but lost weight when fed diet treated with increasing concentrations of either azadirachtin or imidacloprid. In a separate experiment, A. glabripennis adults were fed maple twigs treated with high and low concentrations of imidacloprid. A. glabripennis adult mortality reached 100% after 13 d on twigs treated with 150 ppm imidacloprid and after 20 d on twigs treated with 15 ppm imidacloprid. There was no visible feeding by A. glabripennis adults on twigs treated at the higher imidacloprid rate, and feeding was significantly reduced for adults placed on twigs treated at the low imidacloprid rate compared with adults on untreated twigs. In summary, imidacloprid and azadirachtin had both antifeedant and toxic effects against A. glabripennis and P. scalator and have potential for use in management programs. Based on our results, the delivery of high and sustained insecticide concentrations will be needed to overcome the antifeedant effects and lengthy lethal time for both larvae and adults exposed to these insecticides.
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Vol. 99 • No. 1