The midge Contarinia nasturtii (Keiffer), a serious gall-forming insect pest of cruciferous plants in Europe and southwestern Asia, was first reported in the United States in summer 2004. It had not been recorded in North America until its discovery in Ontario, Canada, in 2000. Efficacy of 20 insecticides belonging to 12 different classes was evaluated by using a foliar spray, soil drench, or seed treatment method. The broccoli cultivar ‘Packman’ was used in all tests at the suitable stage of four to five true leaves. Results indicated that foliar sprays of λ-cyhalothrin, acephate, acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos, and methomyl reduced C. nasturtii larval populations by 96.7–100%. Except for acetamiprid, the other four insecticides also were effective against adults and provided 100% mortality after 24 h. When applied by drench, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam provided 100% control of C. nasturtii larvae, and the duration of efficacy lasted at least 7 wk. When applied as seed treatment, clothianidin and thiamethoxam provided 100% control of larvae and did not significantly affect seed germination. Imidacloprid also provided 100% control but the percentage of germination after treatment was only 62% (96.9% in check). These results indicate that several insecticides may significantly reduce midge populations. The nicotinoid class of insecticides, which has strong systemic activity, is likely to be the first choice. It is necessary to explore and develop other control methods such as cultural control and host resistance to develop an effective integrated pest management system.
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Vol. 99 • No. 1