Homalodisca coagulata Say , adults from three locations in California were subjected to insecticide bioassays to establish baseline toxicity. Initially, two bioassay techniques, petri dish and leaf dip, were compared to determine the most useful method to establish baseline susceptibility data under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Comparative dose-response data were determined by both techniques to endosulfan, dimethoate, cyfluthrin, and acetamiprid. Toxic values were similar to some insecticides with both techniques but not for all insecticides, revealing susceptibility differences among the three populations of H. coagulata. In subsequent tests, the petri dish technique was selected to establish baseline susceptibility data to various contact insecticides. A systemic uptake bioassay was adapted to estimate dose-mortality responses to a systemic insecticide, imidacloprid. A 2-yr comparison of toxicological responses showed all three populations of H. coagulata to be highly susceptible to 10 insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam. In general, two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and esfenvalerate, were the most toxic compounds, followed by two neonicotinoids, acetamiprid and imidacloprid. The LC50 values for all insecticides tested were lower than concentrations used as recommended field rates. Baseline data varied for the three geographically distinct H. coagulata populations with the petri dish technique. Adult H. coagulata collected from San Bernardino County were significantly more susceptible to select pyrethroids compared with adults from Riverside or Kern counties. Adults from San Bernardino County also were more sensitive to two neonicotinoids, acetamiprid and imidacloprid. The highest LC50 values were to endosulfan, which nonetheless proved highly toxic to H. coagulata from all three regions. In the majority of the tests, mortality increased over time resulting in increased susceptibility at 48 h compared with 24 h. These results indicate a wide selection of highly effective insecticides that could aid in managing H. coagulata populations in California.
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Vol. 99 • No. 1