The secondary metabolites present in the methanol extract of a Mucor hiemalis strain (SMU-21) mycelia, cultured in liquid medium, were evaluated for toxicity to Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults. Feeding and contact bioassays revealed that the methanol fraction of the crude supernatant was strongly toxic to both species. Symptoms of toxicity developed quickly; lethargy occurred 1–2 h posttreatment, and mortality reached 82–97% after 24 h. Both feeding and contact bioassays showed that B. oleae was more susceptible than C. capitata. Concentrations producing 50% mortality (LC50) to B. oleae and C. capitata after 24 h in feeding bioassays were 0.52 and 1.28 mg/ 0.1 ml diet, respectively, but 34.8 and 64.0 μg/ cm2, respectively, after 4 h in contact bioassays. Solvent partition, precipitation, and chromatographic procedures were used to isolate the active principles from the crude supernatant. These resulted in the isolation of one high-pressure liquid chromatography fraction with insecticidal activity on B. oleae flies equal to the initial crude supernatant.
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Vol. 99 • No. 5