Susceptibility of immatures of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), to 10 insecticides that included chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam was evaluated in the laboratory. All five instars were exposed to different doses of each foliar insecticide by the petri dish technique, whereas a systemic uptake method was used to assess the toxicity to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. All test insecticides exhibited high toxicity to all immature stages of H. coagulata at concentrations below the field recommended rates of each insecticide. Although all five instars were susceptible to test insecticides, mortality was significantly higher in first instars than in the older immatures based on low LC50 values (ranging from 0.017 to 5.75 ng(AI)/ml) with susceptibility decreasing with each successive stage. Fifth instars were generally the least sensitive (LC50 values ranging from 0.325 to 216.63 ng(AI)/ml). These results show that mortality was directly related to age of the insect and suggest that chemical treatment at early stages is more effective than at late stages. Acetamiprid (neonicotinoid) and bifenthrin (pyrethroid) were the most toxic to all five instars, inducing most mortality within 24 h and showing lower LC50 values ranging from 0.017 to 0.686 ng/ml compared with other insecticides (LC50 values ranging from 0.191 to 216.63 ng(AI)/ml). Our data suggest that a diverse group of very effective insecticides are available to growers for controlling all stages of H. coagulata. Knowledge on toxicity of select insecticides to H. coagulata immatures may contribute to our understanding of resistance management in future for this pest by targeting specific life stages instead of the adult stage alone.
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Vol. 99 • No. 5