Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae, commonly marketed as Calciworms® (Timberline Fisheries Corp., Marion, IL, USA) or Phoenix Worms® (Insect Science Resource, LLC, Tifton, GA, USA), have become increasingly popular as a feeder insect for reptiles. Their popularity stems from the larvae's potentially calcium-rich nature, capable of surpassing a 2:1 calcium to phosphorus ratio without the need for dusting or gut loading. Despite their popularity, there has been limited research regarding their use as a food item for reptiles. They have, however, been studied extensively in food animal production as a less expensive source of animal protein and as part of an integrated waste management system. This review is meant to provide exotic animal veterinarians with evidenced-based research regarding the BSF's natural history, standard rearing practices, and the larvae's nutritive value in various animal systems, including captive reptiles. The authors hope this review will help veterinarians make better feeding recommendations for their reptile patients.
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