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1 October 2011 Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand
Kittikhun Moophayak, Hiromu Kurahashi, Kabkaew L. Sukontason
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Three new species of shoot fly, Atherigona Rondani (subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw) (Diptera: Muscidae), are described from northern Thailand, based on morphological characteristics of males. Unique features of A. komi sp. n. include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur and two dark apical wing spots, whereas A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot, appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch, and no distinct pattern on tergites. A. thailandica sp. n. displays a remarkable dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin and fore femur, with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface. Male terminalia are also different in the new species, showing distinctive characteristics. This paper also presents five newly recorded species in Thailand; Atherigona maculigera Stein, Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh, Atherigona pallidipalpis Malloch, Atherigona seticauda Malloch, and Atherigona setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh. A key is provided for the adult males of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, all belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta, except for A. soccata Rondani.

Introduction

The shoot flies, Atherigona Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae), are small Diptera of the Muscidae family that are widely distributed in Old World tropical regions. Taxonomy of these flies has been investigated in Nepal (Pont 1972; Shinonaga and Singh 1994), the Philippines (Pont and Magpayo 1995), Vietnam (Shinonaga and Thinh 2000), and Borneo Island (Shinonaga 2009), but little investigative work has been done in Thailand. Sepsawadi et al. (1971) investigated the control of Atherigona soccata Rondani (subgenus Atherigona), which is the most economically important pest of sorghum. Pont and Magpayo (1995) studied the subgenus Acritochaeta Grimshaw, whose larvae act as scavenger or predators of decaying organic matter. Atherigona orientalis Schiner, a mechanical carrier of helminthic eggs and larvae, was reported in Brazil (de Oliveira et al. 2002); research conducted in China included A. orientalis, A. simplex (Thomson) and Atherigona sp. in the list of flies frequently associated with carcasses, suggesting possible forensic importance (Shi et al. 2009).

A large number of flies in the genus Atherigona were collected during the course of a faunistic study of flies with medical and/or forensic importance in Northern Thailand during 2009–2010; 1-day-old rotten spoiled beef viscera was used as bait. Using keys for identification (Shinonaga and Singh 1994; Pont and Magpayo 1995; Shinonaga and Thinh 2000), these collections revealed three species that had never been described, belonging to the subgenus Acritochaeta. These three species are new to science, based on the morphological difference of males from previous investigations. Furthermore, five species of Atherigona were recorded for the first time in Thailand. The primary aim of this paper is to describe three new species based on the peculiar characteristics of males. For comprehensive comparison among all species of Atherigona recorded in Thailand, unique characteristics and male terminalia of all available species, along with a key for male identification, have been included.

Materials and Methods

The fly specimens described herein as a new species were collected in 2009–2010. One-day-old rotten spoiled beef viscera (300g) were used as bait, and sweeping nets and traps (30 × 30 × 50 cm) were used to capture individuals. The beef viscera were left at room temperature (∼ 25–30 °C) 24 hours before use. After identification using keys of Shinonaga and Singh (1994), Pont and Magpayo (1995), and Shinonaga and Thinh (2000), these species were identified as new to science. Males were examined under a dissecting microscope (Olympus,  www.olympusglobal.com) to identify external morphological features such as the wing, leg, and abdomen. Photographs of the whole body, wing, and abdomen were taken with a Nikon E-800 (Nikon,  www.nikon.com), and Adobe Photoshop CS3 was used to adjust the brightness and contrast of the images.

To examine the terminalia, the last abdominal segment of the specimens that had already been taken for photographs was dissected under a dissecting microscope (Olympus) using fine forceps. To clear the integument, 10% potassium hydroxide solution with one drop of 70% ethanol was used to soak the specimens for 24 hours before a thorough examination. The terminalia were transferred onto a microscopic slides containing a few drops of 99% glycerol. The illustration was performed from the identical features under a compound microscope (Olympus). Terminology of the adult morphology follows McAlpine (1981), and male terminalia follows Sinclair (2000). Specimen depositories are cited using the following abbreviation: NSMT, National Science Museum, Tokyo.

Atherigona (Acritochaeta) komi sp. n.
(Figures 1, 2, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6)

  • Diagnosis

    Because of its elongate palpus (Figure 1A), lack of hypopygial prominence, and lack of a trifoliate process at end of the epandrium, this new species was grouped in the subgenus Acritochaeta. Distinctive traits of the male of Atherigona komi include a distinct spiral groove on the dorsal aspect of the fore femur (Figure 1B) and two dark apical wing spots (Figures 1C, 2A, 3A). This new species is closely related to A. ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh reported from Vietnam (Shinonaga and Thinh 2000) by the similarity of abdominal pattern on all tergites (Figure 5B). However, distinctive characteristics used to differentiate between these two similar species are the (1) two large dark wing spots located at vein R2+3 and M in A. komi (Figures 1C, 2A, 3A), while only one small dark spot located between vein R2+3 and M is seen in A. ovatipennis vietnamensis (Figures 3B, 7B), the (2) fore femur; the presence of spiral groove on dorsal surface in A. komi (Figure 1B) but absence in A. ovatipennis vietnamensis, the (3) fore tibia; the presence of long bristles curled at apices on basal and distal parts in A. ovatipennis vietnamensis (Figure 7A), but absence in A. komi (Figure 1B), and the (4) fore tarsus; the enlarged pulvillus and empodium in A. ovatipennis vietnamensis (Figure 7A), but normally sized in A. komi (Figure 1B).

  • Description of holotype male

  • Body length. 4.13 mm (range 3.30–4.62 mm), from 13 specimens including holotype (Figure 4A). Wing-length 3.10 mm (range 2.70–3.44 mm).

  • Head. Eyes bare and dichoptic. Frontal vitta black with orange apical ⅖, in two specimens with dark orange, in one specimen with wholly black (Table 1). Fronto-orbital plate grey pollinose. Antennal scape, pedicel, and postpedicel entirely black. Arista pubescent dark brown with light brown at basal ⅖. Palpus wholly black, elongated with slight dilation at apex, with fine hairs along apical ventral part and two strong hairs anteroventrally (Figure 1A).

  • Thorax. Ground-color grey dusted with three broad black longitudinal stripes (Figure 4A). Apex of scutellum orange; postpronotal lobe yellow; anterior and posterior spiracles yellow; basal lateral scutellar setae almost half as long as subbasal lateral setae. Chaetotaxy of scutum: acr in 3 or 4 rows at suture; dc 0+5-6; ial 1+1; pprn 2; npl 2; kepst 3. Leg with orange coxae and trochanters; fore femur black with orange at base and apex, with spiral groove on dorsal surface (Figure 1B); fore tibia and tarsomere black, only orange on tibia basal ⅕; mid femur orange, with 1 or 2 p (Table 1); mid tibia orange, dark on apical half, with 1 p; mid tarsomere entirely black; hind femur entirely orange; hind tibia black with orange on basal ⅕, with 1 ad, 1 av, 1 pd; hind tarsomere entirely black. Wing hyaline (Figure 3A), with 2 apical dark spots located at veins R2+3 and M (Figures 1C, 2A, 3A); vein M slightly bending anteriorly; cross vein r-m slightly before middle of cell dm. Lower calypter yellowish-white; upper calypter yellowish-white with white below. Knob of halteres white.

  • Abdomen. Abdomen ground-color orange (Figure 5A). Tergite 1+2 with a pair of well-separated, dark brown marginal bands (Figures 1D, 2B, 2C, 5A), though a few specimens did not have dark brown marginal bands (Figures 2D, 2E) (Table 1); tergite 3 with a pair of well-separated, broad dark brown marginal bands, ¼ – ½ tergal length (Figures 1D, 2B–E, 5A); tergite 4 with a pair of well-separated, dark brown subtriangular spots, ¾ tergal length (Figures 1D, 2B–E, 5A); tergite 5 with a pair of well-separated, dark brown subtriangular spots, ⅓ tergal length (Figures 1D, 2B–E).

  • Terminalia. No hypopygial prominence observed at the proximal epandrium and trifoliate process at distal epandrium (Figures 1E, 6A, 6B); cercal plate, on extreme upper margin, with (Figures 1F, 6D) or without a long distinct setae (Figure 6C).

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype

    ♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Mae Raem, Tardmok waterfall (18°57′34″N, 98°50′06″E), 805 m, 23-IX-2009, K. Moophayak. Holotype (NSMT-I-Dip6787) deposited in NSMT.

  • Paratypes

    6♂, same data as holotype. 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′21″ N, 98° 54′ 39″ E), 1104 m, 13-XI-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 20″ N, 98° 54′ 34″ E), 950 m, 6-IX-2009, T. Klongklaew; 1♂, Thailand: Phitsanulok, Wang Thong, Huai Nam Phong (16° 51′ 53″ N, 100° 31′ 01″ E), 252 m, 20-IX-2009, N. Bunchu; 3♂, Thailand: Phitsanulok, Wang Thong, Huai Nam Phong (16° 5′ 53″ N, 100° 31′ 01″ E), 252 m, 22-IX-2009, N. Bunchu; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 21″ N, 98° 54′ 39″ E), 1104 m, 22-IX-2010, K. Moophayak; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34′ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 21-IX-2010, K. Moophayak.

  • Remarks

    This species was collected in traps (30 × 30 × 50 cm) with 300 g of one-day-old rotten spoiled beef viscera, not one-day-old rotten spoiled mackerel.

  • Distribution

    Known only from the type locality, Chiang Mai and Phitsanulok provinces of Thailand.

  • Bionomics

    Adult males were collected using one-day-old rotten spoiled beef viscera or one-day-old rotten spoiled pork viscera as bait, at altitudes ranging from 805-1104 m. The collection site was the bush with the high tree along the local highway (Figure 8A). This species was collected from the late rainy season (September) to early winter (November).

  • Etymology

    This new species was named in honor of Dr. Kom Sukontason for his support and encouragement of fly research in Thailand.

  • Table 1.

    Intraspecific variation of characteristics observed in Atherigona komi sp. n.

    t01_01.gif

    Atherigona (Acritochaeta) ovatipennis vietnamensis Shinonaga et Thinh
    (Figures 3B, 4B, 5B, 7A–E)

  • Specimens examined

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Chom Thong (18° 30′ 52″ N, 98° 31′ 33″ E), 1494 m, 11-XI-2009, K. Moophayak.

  • Distribution

    Vietnam (Shinonaga and Thinh 2000) and Thailand (new record). The collection site in Thailand was the high forest area, altitude 1494 m.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) chiangmaiensis sp. n.
    (Figures 3C, 4C, 5C, 9A–E)

  • Diagnosis.

    This new species was placed in the subgenus Acritochaeta for having an elongate palpus (Figure 9A); presence of dark apical wing-spot (Figure 3C); no hypopygial prominence; and without a trifoliate process at the end of the epandrium. Males of A. chiangmaiensis can be recognized by the presence of one large patch on the apical wing spot (Figure 3C) appearing as a large and smaller wave-shaped patch (Figure 9B), an orange body (Figure 4C), and no distinct pattern on tergites (Figures 5C, 9C).

  • Description of holotype male

  • Body length. 5.27 mm (1 specimen) (Figure 4C). Wing-length 3.27 mm.

  • Head. Eyes bare and dichoptic; frontal vitta orange that is basally dark; fronto-orbital plate grey pollinose. Antennal scape and pedicel orange; postpedicel black; arista pubescent, black with orange at basal ⅖. Palpus wholly black, elongated with slight dilation at apex, with fine hairs along ventral part and strong hairs along dorsal part (Figure 9A).

  • Thorax. Entirely ground-color orange with one narrowed dark longitudinal median vitta (Figure 4C); postpronotal lobe yellow; anterior and posterior spiracles yellow; basal lateral scutellar setae almost half as long as subbasal lateral setae. Chaetotaxy of scutum: acr in 4 or 5 rows at suture; dc 0+5-6; ial 1+1; pprn 1; npl 2; kepst 3. Leg entirely orange; fore femur with excavation on dorsal surface; mid femur orange with 2 p; mid tibia with 1 p; hind tibia black with 1 ad, 1 av, 1 pd. Wing hyaline (Figure 3C) with one large dark spot from midway between veins R2+3 and R4+5 to just beyond vein M (Figures 3C, 9B); M slightly bending anteriorly; cross vein r-m slightly before middle of cell dm. Lower and upper calypters clear yellow. Knob of halteres pale yellow.

  • Abdomen. Ground-color orange. Tergite 1+2 without any bands or patterns marginally (Figures 5C, 9C).

  • Terminalia. Without hypopygial prominence at proximal epandrium and trifoliate process at distal epandrium (Figure 9D); cercal plate, on sub-upper margin, with one or two long distinct setae (Figure 9E).

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K. Moophayak. Holotype (NSMT-I-Dip 6788) deposited in NSMT.

  • Paratypes

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 21″ N, 98° 54′ 39″ E), 1104 m, 22-IX-2010, K. Moophayak; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 21-IX-2010, K. Moophayak.

  • Taxonomic Discussion

    A. chiangmaiensis sp. n. is a member of the subgenus Acritochaeta based on the presence of a dark apical wing-spot, an elongate palpus, lack of a hypopygial prominence, and lack of a trifoliate process at the end of the epandrium. This new species is closely related to A. gigantipunctata Shinonaga reported from Vietnam (Shinonaga and Thinh 2000) by the similarity of the abdominal pattern, which lacks any patterns or marginal bands, as well as the similarity of one large dark spot from midway between veins R2+3 and R4+5 to just beyond vein M. However, the shape of this wing spot is markedly different between these two species; a large and smaller wave-shaped patch is seen in A. chiangmaiensis, compared to a vertical oval patch seen in A. gigantipunctata.

  • Distribution

    Known only from the type locality, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

  • Bionomics

    Adult males were collected using one-day-old rotten spoiled beef viscera or one-day-old rotten spoiled pork viscera as bait, at an altitude of 1142 m. Specimens were unable to be collected using one-day-old rotten spoiled mackerel. The collected site was the dense forest ∼ 200 m away from the local highway (Figure 8B). This species was collected only in the late rainy season (September) to early winter (November).

  • Etymology

    The new species epithet refers to Chiang Mai province, in which the type of material of the new species was collected.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) thailandica sp. n.
    (Figures 3D, 4D, 5D, 10A–E)

  • Diagnosis

    This new species is placed in the subgenus Acritochaeta for having an elongate palpus (Figure 10A), the presence of a dark apical wing-spot (Figures 3D, 10C), lack of a hypopygial prominence, and lack of a trifoliate process at the end of the epandrium. Males of A. thailandica can be recognized by the presence of a dark boomerang-shaped patch along the margin, extending from the distal ⅓ between veins R1, R2+3 to just below vein M (Figures 3D, 10C), cross vein r-m at the middle of cell dm, and fore femur with two rows of long hairs on the dorsal surface.

  • Description of holotype male

  • Body length. 3.87 mm (range 3.56–4.22 mm) (8 specimens including holotype) (Figure 4D). Wing-length 3.23 mm (range 3.02–3.52 mm).

  • Head. Eye bare and dichoptic, frontal vitta black, fronto-orbital plate grey pollinose. Antennal scape, pedicel, and postpedicel entirely black; arista pubescent, dark brown with orange on basal ⅗. Palpus wholly black, elongated with slight dilation at apex (Figure 10A).

  • Thorax. Ground-color grey with three black longitudinal stripes of the same width (Figure 4D); apex of scutellum orange; postpronotal lobe yellow; anterior and posterior spiracle yellow; basal lateral scutellar setae almost half as long as subbasal lateral setae. Chaetotaxy of scutum: acr in 3 or 4 rows at suture; dc 0+5-6; ial 1+1; pprn 1; npl 2; kepst 3. Leg with orange coxae and trochanters; foreleg almost completely black, except orange at basal ⅕ – ⅗ of femur and on basal ⅖ of tibia; fore femur with two rows of long hairs on dorsal surface; mid leg entirely orange; mid femur entirely orange, with 2 p; hind leg almost orange, except darker at tip and ½ femur and tibia, respectively; hind tibia with 1 ad, 1 av, 1 pd. Wing hyaline with dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin, extending from distal ⅓ between veins R1 and R2+3 to just below vein M (Figures 3D, 10C); M slightly bending anteriorly; cross vein r-m at the middle of cell dm. Lower and upper calypters yellowish-white. Knob of halteres white.

  • Abdomen. Ground-color yellow; tergite 1+2 with indistinct marginal band; tergite 3 with indistinct median vitta and a pair of small dark brown marginal bands, ⅖ – ⅗ tergal length (Figures 5D, 10D); tergite 4 with a pair of well-separated, dark brown more or less triangular spots, ⅓ – ⅓ tergal length (Figures 5D, 10D); tergite 5 with a pair of smaller dark brown round spots, tergal length (Figures 5D, 10D).

  • Terminalia. Lacking hypopygial prominence at proximal epandrium and trifoliate process at distal epandrium; surstylus with distinct line of hairs along inner margin (Figures 10E, 10F).

  • Female. Unknown.

  • Holotype

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 23-IX-2009, K. Moophayak. Holotype (NSMT-I-Dip 6789) deposited in NSMT.

  • Paratypes

    1♂, same data as holotype; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 21″ N, 98° 54′ 34″ E), 1104 m, 13-XI-2009, K. Moophayak; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K.L. Sukontason; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, T. Klongklaew; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 21-IX-2010, K. Moophayak.

  • Taxonomic Discussion

    A. thailandica can be distinguished from the other species of the subgenus Acritochaeta for having unique wing features; a dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin, extending from distal Vi between veins R1 and R2+3 to just below vein M. The other characteristics are the position of a cross vein, of which r-m at the middle of cell dm and fore femur with two rows of long hairs on dorsal surface.

  • Bionomics

    Adult males were collected using one-day-old rotten spoiled beef viscera as bait, at altitudes ranging from 805-1104 m. However, they could not be collected using one-day-old rotten spoiled pork viscera or one-day-old rotten spoiled mackerel as bait. The collection site was the bush with the high tree along the local highway (Figure 8A). This species was collected only in the late rainy season (September) to early winter (November).

  • Distribution

    Known only from the type locality, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

  • Etymology

    The species epithet refers to Thailand, where the type material of the new species was collected.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) setitarsus Shinonaga et Thinh
    (Figures 3E, 4E, 5E, 11A–F)

  • Species examined

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 23-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 21″ N, 98° 54′ 34″ E), 1104 m, 25-IX-2009, R. Ngoen-klan; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K.L. Sukontason; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Chom Thong (18° 30′ 52″ N, 58° 31′ 33″ E), 1494 m, 11-XI-2009, T. Klongklaew.

  • Distribution

    Vietnam (Shinonaga and Thinh 2000) and Thailand (new record). The collection sites in Thailand were in an urban area, altitude ranging from 805–1494 m.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) seticauda Malloch
    (Figures 3F, 4F, 5F, 12A–D)

  • Specimens examined

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, R. Ngoen-klan; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, T. Klongklaew; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 47′ 20″ N, 98° 50′ 28″ E), 499 m, 20-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 47′ 20″ N, 98° 50′ 28″ E), 499 m, 9-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 47′ 20″ N, 98° 50′ 28″ E), 499 m, 13-VIII-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 47′ 20″ N, 98° 50′ 28″ E), 499 m, 1-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 4♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 3-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 8-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 5♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 8-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 10♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 21-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 14-VIII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 2-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 55′ 36″ N, 98° 54′ 09″ E), 357 m, 2-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 46′ 51″ N, 99° 57′ 10″ E), 349 m, 21-IX-2009, K. Moophayak.

  • Distribution

    Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Philippines (Pont and Magpayo 1995), and Thailand (new record). The collection sites in Thailand were in an urban area, altitude ranging from 349–1142 m.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) maculigera Stein
    (Figures 3G, 4G, 5G, 13A–E)

  • Specimens examined

    2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K.L. Sukontason; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, K. Moophayak; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, R. Ngoen-klan; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, T. Klongklaew; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 8-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 3-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 23-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 8-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 2-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 55′ 40″ N, 98° 57′ 18″ E), 334 m, 26-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 5♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 47′ 19″ N, 98° 55′ 15″ E), 817 m, 15-III-2008, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 47′ 19″ N, 98° 55′ 15″ E), 950 m, 6-IX-2009, R. Ngoen-klan; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 47′ 19″ N, 98° 55′ 15″ E), 950 m, 6-IX-2009, T. Klongklaew; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 47′ 19″ N, 98° 55′ 15″ E), 950 m, 25-IX-2009, R. Ngoen-klan; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 21″ N, 98° 54′ 39″ E), 1104 m, 13-XI-2009, K. Moophayak; 4♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 19″ N, 98° 54′ 37″ E), 1138 m, 9-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang, Suthep-Pui Mt. (18° 48′ 19″ N, 98° 54′ 37″ E), 1138 m, 25-V-2009, K. Moophayak.

  • Distribution

    Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan (Pont and Magpayo 1995), and Thailand (new record). The collection sites in Thailand were in an urban area, altitude ranging from 334–1142 m.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) pallidipalpis Malloch
    (Figures 3H, 4H, 5H, 14A,B)

  • Specimens examined

    2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Doi Saket, Doi Nang Kaew (19° 03′ 53″ N, 99° 22′ 34″ E), 1142 m, 14-XI-2009, R. Ngoen-klan; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 41′ 21″ N, 98° 59′ 09″ E), 294 m, 30-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 3♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 8-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 3-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 55′ 36″ N, 98° 54′ 09″ E), 357 m, 14-VIII-2009, K. Moophayak; I♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 55′ 36″ N, 98° 54′ 09″ E), 357 m, 2-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 8-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 3-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 21-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 2-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 45′ 22″ N, 98° 55′ 21″ E), 8-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 46′ 44″ N, 99° 04′ 48″ E), 284 m, 26-VII-2009, K. Moophayak.

  • Distribution

    India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Melanesia? (Pont and Magpayo 1995), and Thailand (new record). The collection sites in Thailand were in an urban area, altitude ranging from 284–1142 m.

  • Atherigona (Acritochaeta) orientalis Schiner
    (Figures 3I, 4I, 5I, 15A, 15B)

  • Specimens examined

    1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 41′ 21″ N, 98° 59′ 09″ E), 294 m, 26-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 42′ 30″ N, 98° 55′ 57″ E), 5-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 42′ 30″ N, 98° 55′ 57″ E), 22-X-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 47′ 20″ N, 98° 50′ 28″ E), 499 m, 20-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 44′ 14″ N, 98° 59′ 09″ E), 372 m, 18-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 44′ 14″ N, 98° 59′ 09″ E), 372 m, 8-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 45′ 29″ N, 98° 52′ 07″ E), 378 m, 1-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 45′ 29″ N, 98° 52′ 07″ E), 378 m, 20-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Hang Dong (18° 45′ 29″ N, 98° 52′ 07″ E), 378 m, 9-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 28♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 8-IV-2009, K. Moophayak; 8♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Tardmok waterfall (18° 57′ 34″ N, 98° 50′ 06″ E), 805 m, 27-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Saluang (19° 07′ 48″ N, 98° 54′ 34″ E), 353 m, 16-VIII-2009, K. Moophayak; 5♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 55′ 36″ N, 98° 54′ 09″ E), 357 m, 21-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 55′ 36″ N, 98° 54′ 09″ E), 357 m, 16-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 21-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, Pong Yaeng (18° 53′ 14″ N, 98° 49′ 53″ E), 750 m, 3-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim (18° 51′ 34″ N, 98° 32′ 51″ E), 331 m, 10-VI-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Mae Rim (18° 51′ 34″ N, 98° 32′ 51″ E), 331 m, 16-VIII-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 49′ 22″ N, 99° 04′ 12″ E), 305 m, 7-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 2♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 55′ 40″ N, 98° 57′ 18″ E), 334 m, 8-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 46′ 44″ N, 99° 04′ 48″ E), 284 m, 26-VII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 45′ 22″ N, 98° 55′ 21″ E), 10-VIII-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 45′ 22″ N, 98° 55′ 21″ E), 1-IX-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 46′ 51″ N, 99° 57′ 10″ E), 349 m, 19-V-2009, K. Moophayak; 1♂, Thailand: Chiang Mai, Muang (18° 46′ 51″ N, 99° 57′ 10″ E), 349 m, 9-VI-2009, K. Moophayak.

  • Distribution

    Cosmotropical including Thailand. The collection sites in Thailand were in an urban area, altitude ranging from 284–805 m.

  • Atherigona (Atherigona) soccata Rondani

  • No specimens were collected in this study; however, there was a record for this fly control in Thailand (Sepsawadi et al. 1971).

  • Distribution

    Pakistan, India, Nepal, Myanmar, China (Guangdong), Philippines, Thailand, southern Europe, North Africa, Middle East, throughout the Afrotropical region (Pont and Magpayo 1995)

  • Key to the species of Atheriogona recorded in Thailand (only for males)

    1. Palpus elongate, slightly dilated at apex. Abdomen without hypopygial prominence and trifoliate process subgenus Acritochaeta 2

    Palpus short, dilated at apex. Abdomen with hypopygial prominence and trifoliate process Subgenus Atherigona (Thailand only A. soccata recorded)

    2. Wing with apical dark spot or band or patch 3

    Wing wholly clear 7

    3. Wing with 2 apical dark spots located at R2+3 and M. Fore femur with spiral groove A. komi sp. n.

    Wing with one band or patch along margin 4

    4. Tergites without any band and pattern A. chiangmaiensis sp. n.

    Tergites with marginal band or pattern, at least T3, T4 5

    5. Fore tibia and tarsomere without long setae. Fore femur almost black with two rows of long hairs on dorsal surface. Wing with dark boomerang-shaped patch along the wing margin, extending from distal ⅓ between veins R1 and R2+3 to just below vein M A. Thailandica sp. n.

    Fore tibia and/or tarsomere with long setae 6

    6. Fore tibia with three long setae distally. Fore tarsomere with numerous long hairs. Pulvilli and empodium of fore tarsus normal, not enlarged. Wing with dark narrow vertical patch along margin from midway between veins R2+3 and R4+5 to just beyond vein M A. setitarsus

    Fore tibia with long curled setae basally and distally. Fore tarsomere without long hairs. Pulvilli and empodium of fore tarsus enlarged. Wing with dark narrow spot located between veins R4+5 and M A. ovatipennis vietnamensis

    7. Tergite 5 with one pair of long stout setae. Three pairs of long stout setae at lower margin of cercus A. seticauda

    Tergite 5 without of any long stout setae 8

    8. Hind femur and tibia with ventral keel A. maculigera

    Hind femur and tibia without ventral keel 9

    9. Fore tarsomere with fine hairs A. pallidipalpis

    Fore tarsomere without fine hairs A. orientalis

    Figure 1.

    Atherigona komi sp. nov. (A) Palpus, left lateral view; (B) fore femur with spiral groove (arrow); (C) wing; (D) abdomen, dorsal view; (E) male terminalia, left lateral view; (F) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f01_01.jpg

    Figure 2.

    Variation of Atherigona komi sp. nov. (A) Wing; (B, C) abdomen with a pair of well-separated, dark brown marginal bands at tergite 1+2, dorsal view; (D, E) abdomen without a pair of well-separated, dark brown marginal bands at tergite 1+2, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f02_01.jpg

    Figure 3.

    Wing of Atherigona. (A) A. komi sp. nov.; (B) A. ovatipennis vietnamensis; (C) A. chiangmaiensis sp. nov.; (D) A. thailandica sp. nov.; (E) A. setitarsus; (F) A. seticauda; (G) A. maculigera; (H) A. pallidipalpis; (I) A. orientalis. Scale bar = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f03_01.jpg

    Figure 4.

    Habitus photographs of Atherigona, dorsal view. (A) A. komi sp. nov.; (B) A. ovatipennis vietnamensis; (C) A. chiangmaiensis sp. nov.; (D) A. thailandica sp. nov.; (E) A. setitarsus; (F) A. seticauda; (G) A. maculigera; (H) A. pallidipalpis; (I) A. orientalis. Scale bar = 1 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f04_01.jpg

    Figure 5.

    Abdomen of Atherigona, dorsal view. (A) A. komi sp. nov.; (B). A. ovatipennis vietnamensis; (C) A. chiangmaiensis sp. nov.; (D) A. thailandica sp. nov.; (E) A. setitarsus; (F) A. seticauda; (G) A. maculigera; (H) A. pallidipalpis; (I) A. orientalis. Scale bar = 0.2 mm. High quality figures are available online.

    f05_01.jpg

    Figure 6.

    Variation of Atherigona komi sp. nov. (A, B) Male terminalia, left lateral view; (C) male terminalia without long distinct seta on cercal plate, dorsal view; (D) male terminalia with long distinct seta (arrow) on cercal plate, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f06_01.jpg

    Figure 7.

    Atherigona ovatipennis vietnamensis. (A) Fore femur, tibia, and tarsus. Three long bristles on basal part and nine long bristles on distal ⅓ that curled on apices of tibia. (B) wing; (C) abdomen, dorsal view; (D) male terminalia, left lateral view; (E) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f07_01.jpg

    Figure 8.

    The biotopes of Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. (A) Locality of the bush with high tree along the local highway where the holotypes of Atherigona komi sp. nov. and Atherigona thailandica sp. nov. were collected; (B) locality of the dense forest (1142 m altitude), about 200 m away from the local highway where the holotype of Atherigona chiangmaiensis sp. nov. was collected. High quality figures are available online.

    f08_01.jpg

    Figure 9.

    Atherigona chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (A) Palpus, left lateral view; (B) wing; (C) abdomen, dorsal view; (D) male terminalia, left lateral view; (E) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f09_01.jpg

    Figure 10.

    Atherigona thailandica sp. nov. (A) palpus, left lateral view; (B) fore femur; (C) wing; (D) abdomen, dorsal view; (E) male terminalia, left lateral view; (F) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f10_01.jpg

    Figure 11.

    Atherigona setitarsus. (A) Palpus, left lateral view; (B) fore femur; (C) wing; (D) abdomen, dorsal view; (E) male terminalia, left lateral view; (F) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f11_01.jpg

    Figure 12.

    Atherigona seticauda. (A) Abdomen, dorsal view; (B) male terminalia focusing on the long caudal setae on tergite 5, left lateral view; (C) male terminalia of other specimen after removing tergite 5, left lateral view; (D) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f12_01.jpg

    Figure 13.

    Atherigona maculigera. (A) Fore leg showing femur and tibia; (B) hind leg showing femur and tibia; (C) abdomen, dorsal view; (D) male terminalia, left lateral view; (E) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f13_01.jpg

    Figure 14.

    Atherigona pallidipalpis. (A) Male terminalia, left lateral view; (B) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f14_01.jpg

    Figure 15.

    Atherigona orientalis. (A) Male terminalia, left lateral view; (B) male terminalia, dorsal view. High quality figures are available online.

    f15_01.jpg

    Acknowledgements

    This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund and the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D Program (PHD/0203/2548). We are grateful to Dr. Kom Sukontason, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, for taking the photographs and field survey; to the Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University for their support; to Dr. Satoshi Shinonaga, Department of Medical Zoology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, for his valuable suggestions; to Dr. Mutsuo Kobayashi, Director, Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, for offering working facilities during K. Moophayak's training; to Dr. N. Bunchu, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, for providing the interesting specimens from Phitsanulok; and to Ratchadawan Ngoen-klan and Tunwadee Klongklaew for their co-working in a collection trip. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their suggestions.

    Editor's note

    Paper copies of this article will be deposited in the following libraries. Universitaetsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany; National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, USA; University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA; Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington D.C., USA; The Linnean Society, London, England. The date of publication is given in ‘About the Journal’ on the Journal of Insect Science website.

    Abbreviations:

    NSMT,

    National Science Museum, Tokyo;

    acr ,

    presutural acrostichal setae;

    ad ,

    anterodorsal seta;

    kepst ,

    katepisternal setae;

    av ,

    anteroventral seta;

    dc ,

    dorsocentral setae;

    ial ,

    intra-alar setae;

    npl ,

    notopleural setae;

    p ,

    preapical posterior seta;

    pd ,

    posterodorsal seta;

    pprn ,

    postpronotal setae

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    This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
    Kittikhun Moophayak, Hiromu Kurahashi, and Kabkaew L. Sukontason "Three New Species of Shoot Fly, Atherigona spp., from Northern Thailand," Journal of Insect Science 11(139), 1-16, (1 October 2011). https://doi.org/10.1673/031.011.13901
    Received: 24 November 2010; Accepted: 1 January 2011; Published: 1 October 2011
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