Open Access
How to translate text using browser tools
1 March 2011 Local Abundance Patterns of Noctuid Moths in Olive Orchards: Life-History Traits, Distribution Type and Habitat Interactions
Sergio Pérez-Guerrero, Alberto José Redondo, José Luis Yela
Author Affiliations +

Local species abundance is related to range size, habitat characteristics, distribution type, body size, and life-history variables. In general, habitat generalists and polyphagous species are more abundant in broad geographical areas. Underlying this, local abundance may be explained from the interactions between life-history traits, chorological pattern, and the local habitat characteristics. The relationship within taxa between life-history traits, distribution area, habitat characteristics, and local abundance of the noctuid moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) assemblage in an olive orchard, one of the most important agro-ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin, was analyzed. A total of 66 species were detected over three years of year-round weekly samplings using the light-trap method. The life-history traits examined and the distribution type were found to be related to the habitat-species association, but none of the biological strategies defined from the association to the different habitats were linked with abundance. In contrast to general patterns, dispersal ability and number of generations per year explained differences in abundance. The relationships were positive, with opportunistic taxa that have high mobility and several generations being locally more abundant. In addition, when the effect of migrant species was removed, the distribution type explained abundance differences, with Mediterranean taxa (whose baricenter is closer to the studied area) being more abundant.


Many ecological studies have shown differences between the characteristics of abundant and rare species (Kunin and Gaston 1993; Gaston 1994; Blackburn et al. 1996; Blackburn et al. 2006; Freckleton et al. 2006; Zuckerberg et al. 2009). In general, abundant species have a broader distribution range, and more dense populations tend to be located towards the center of the distribution area (Brown 1984; Blackburn 1991; Lawton 1993; Beck et al. 2006; Freckleton et al. 2006; Zuckerberg et al. 2009). Nevertheless, conclusions and patterns found could be scale-, taxon-, and habitat-dependent (Gaston and Lawton 1990; Fangllang and Gaston 2000; Cowley et al. 2001; Blackburn et al. 2006). Life-history traits of species can also determine differences in abundance (Gaston and Lawton 1988a; Inkinen 1994; Blackburn et al. 1996; Blackburn et al. 1997; Quinn et al. 1997; Eriksson and Jakobsson 1998; Zuckerberg et al. 2009). In these studies, results differed according to the taxon and variables selected. So, Blackburn et al. (1996) found that both life span and lifetime reproduction in British birds determined abundance when phylogenetic relationships between different species of birds were considered. Studies with macrolepidoptera showed that only habitat generalism and degree of polyphagy significantly explained the variation in abundance (Quinn et al. 1997). In particular, these authors found that generalist and polyphagous species were more abundant. In contrast, for bracken herbivores, Gaston & Lawton (1988a) showed that polyphagous species were scarcer. However, this study did not take phylogeny into account.

Some researchers have evaluated the relationship of abundance and life history traits within the Noctuidae. Inkinen (1994) showed that the most abundant species were generalists and polyphagous. Rejmánek and Spitzer (1982) positively correlated variation in annual abundance, degree of polyphagy, voltinism, and dispersal ability of noctuid moths [although for variation in annual abundance and degree of polyphagy, the results have been refuted by other authors such as Nieminen (1996) and Gaston and Lawton (1988b)]. In none these works were the effects of phylogeny controlled for (Harvey and Pagel 1991).

Overall, studies examining effects of life history traits on abundance have focused on general abundance patterns in large geographical areas, including a wide variety of ecosystems. Thus, very few previous papers focusing on this pattern in a particular agro-ecosystem have been found. Lozosova et al. (2008) evaluated which biological traits, ecological characteristics, and distributional characteristics were most closely related to the regional abundance of weed species on a wide variety of arable land such as cereal, root crops, uplands, and lowlands. These authors found that the most important attributes are those that enable weeds to grow and reproduce in the cool season when there is limited competition with crop plants, and those that enable them to growth in dense vegetation stands and highly productive habitats. In addition, some works have tested the effects of agricultural intensification on abundance-life history traits relationships (Burel et al. 2001; Jennins and Pocock, 2009). Burel et al. (2001) showed that dispersal ability and body size of Diptera and Coleoptera, respectively, determine differences in abundance under different conditions of landscape context and agricultural intensification. Jennins and Pocock (2008) found that some ecological traits of insectivorous mammals and arthropods, associated with fast life histories and low mobility, were related with the sensibility to agricultural intensification. The present study evaluates life-history traits, distribution type and habitat interactions of noctuid moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in relation with local abundance patterns, in particular, in olive orchards in South Spain.

Olives are one of the major crops in the Mediterranean basin. Several studies have evaluated the biology of insect pests that damage the crop significantly (Ramos et al. 1998; Broumas et al. 2002; Shehata et al. 2003). Nevertheless, studies on non-pest, olive orchard-based resident or transient arthropod assemblages are scarce (Morris and Fields 1999; Morris et al. 1999; Ruano et al. 2004). This agro-ecosystem represents a dominant, continuous landscape where natural vegetation is almost absent except ephimeral weeds, causing drastic variations in food availability and refuges against natural enemies. Thus, these unstable environmental situations may be compensated by the occupation of olive orchards by species tending to show more opportunistic (generalistic) strategies, which theoretically would translate in higher egg number production, higher dispersal ability, higher degree of polyphagy, and higher number of generations per year (see Rejmánek and Spitzer 1982; Inkinen 1994; Quinn et al. 1997). Our hypothesis, therefore, is that local abundance of noctuid moths in olive orchards may be correlated to life-history traits and biological characteristics of species that reflect their opportunistic condition.

Materials and Methods

Study site

The study was carried out in the Guadalquivir Valley (Andalusia, Spain), located from 37° 51′ N to 37° 58′ N and from 4° 15′ W to 4° 28′ W. In particular, sampling sites were located in Bujalance, province of Córdoba (30SUG79) at an altitude ca. 350 m. a. s. 1. The climate is continental Mediterranean (Capel Molina 1981): mean annual rainfall is 500 mm with hot, dry summers (29° C on average), and relatively cold and wet winters (9.5° C on average). Olive orchards comprise the main landscape (81% of the cultivated area), followed by crops such as wheat and sunflower (19%), plus some areas cultivated with fruit trees (0.02%) (Redondo et al. 1994). Olive trees are grown under an intensive regime in which emergent weeds are controlled by two additions per year of the herbicide Simazine (50%, 4 L/ha), one in March-April, another in October. Synthethic organic insecticides are used to control pests, mainly Prays oleae Bernard (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) and Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera, Tephritidae): one addition of Dimethoate (40%, 150 ml/ha) for P. oleae in May and two treatments with the same product for the control of B. oleae in September and October, respectively. In addition, copper sulphate is used (40%, 1g/1) to control leaf spot diseases. Fertilizers are applied as required (urea and other foliar fertilizers in January-February). Consequently, the wild vegetation is reduced to riversides, roadsides, and the edges of some properties (for more details about community composition of this vegetation type see Redondo et al. 1994). The studied agrosystem and its managing regime are representative of the main landscape and practices in the Guadalquivir basin, so that the overall patterns arising from the data are presumed to be general (in spite of the known geographical and interannual variation in species composition and richness in Noctuidae; Luff and Woiwod 1995, Summerville and Crist 2008).

Abundance data

In this paper, attention has been focused on Noctuidae for a number of reasons. They are numerically important, both by their great diversity and abundance (Holloway 1992; Yela 1998; Ramos et al. 2001; Novotny et al. 2006), so that they usually comprise a major proportion of captures at light traps (see e.g. Janzen 1988; Barlow and Woiwod 1989; Holloway 1992). They are also ubiquitous, living in all kinds of terrestrial biotopes, and are good indicators of biodiversity in given areas (Morrone and Ruggiero 2001; Summerville et al. 2004; Scalercio et al. 2008). They are also important food sources for other organisms as bats, birds, and insect parasitoids, establishing complex interactions with them (Jacobs et al. 2008; Jones et al. 2008; Gassmann et al. 2010, and references therein). In general, they manifest rapid response to environmental perturbations (Erhardt and Thomas 1991; Luff and Woiwod 1995), which reflects well on their functional significance (Holloway 1992). A number of species produce major agricultural and silvicultural impact because their larvae are pests of huge significance (Bourgogne 1951; Cayrol 1972; Gómez Bustillo et al. 1986; Holloway et al. 1992; Baragaño et al. 1998). Additionlly, census methods are simple and inexpensive (Yela 1992; Scalercio et al. 2008).

For collecting moths, light traps were used which are considered one of the best methods to register adults of a wide range of noctuid species (Williams 1936; Löbel 1982; Muirhead-Thomson 1991). In particular, hand- and net-sampling was done using five 250 W mercury vapor bulbs (Phillips H37KC-250/DX, put in front of white sheets, as described in the literature (e.g. Yela 1992), situated 30 m apart from each other and placed in same sites all the time. In the conditions of our study, attraction radius should reach not more than 30 m (e.g. Yela 1992; Yela and Holyoak 1997; and references therein). One (and the same) observer collected all adult noctuids that arrived to the sheets during the first three hours every night, that is by far the period of maximal activity (Yela and Holyoak 1997). Because numbers of collected moths were usually low on each bulb, total captures were pooled together. As a whole, adults of 66 species were detected over three years of weekly samplings (1987–1989). Originally, numbers of individuals followed a polynomial distribution, indicating a very unstable structure of the noctuid assemblage (which is expected for a highly modified and managed ecosystem). Therefore, for data analysis, numbers of individuals per species and per year were log-transformed to meet the assumption of normality (Zar 1984). There could be differences among species in the number of captured individuals caused by differential attraction of the light trap (Muirhead-Thomson 1991; Yela and Holyoak 1997); but usually, it is assumed that this fact does not have a significant effect on the abundance patterns (Taylor and Carter 1961; Taylor and Woiwod 1980; Taylor 1986; Quinn et al. 1997). Additionally, in order to explore potential effects of environmental factors on sampling (Williams 1940, 1961; Hardwick 1972; Pearson 1976; Gaydecki 1984; Dent and Pawar 1988; Yela and Holyoak 1997), data for temperature, moonlight, cloud cover, and wind were recorded. Only temperature and moonlight light showed some effect (r2= 0.32; P < 0.001 and r2 = 0.034; P < 0.01), being moderately positive and slightly negative, respectively (Pérez-Guerrero et al. in prep). Appendix 1 shows the whole census by species.

Biological characteristics

For each species found, six relevant biological characteristics were selected and were categorized as in Quinn et al. (1997). Characteristics include relevant life-history traits (number of eggs, number of generations per year, dispersal ability, feeding specificity) and other important ecological features (plant type of larval host plant and distribution type). Most of these traits are subject to geographic variability; however, categorical levels of variables have enough range to cope with this variability. Categories of the 66 species evaluated are also shown in the Appendix 1. Body size was not considered as a covariable since the adults of most of the species studied showed relatively similar size, so that intraspecific variation did not significantly differ from interspecific variation (F60,4220 = 0.93; P = 0.65);

Life-history traits

Number of eggs. Data are derived from a dataset compiled during more than 30 years (Yela, unpublished data). They were obtained mainly by dissecting female abdomina after boiling them with KOH (during the process of genitalia preparation) and counting all the forming eggs in the ovarioles under a standard binocular microscope. Number of examined females varies greatly from species to species; therefore, our data was pooled with that obtained from the bibliography (which must be considered very cautiously). This produces a rough estimation, based on which three categories were considered: from 1 to 100 (1), from 101 to 500 (2), and more than 500 eggs (3).

Number of generations per year. Species that complete one generation per life cycle (1; univoltine species), two generations (2; bivoline species), or more than two generations (3; multivoltine species) were classified according to Bergmann (1954), Meszaros (1967), Beck (1960), Ortiz and Templado (1982), Bembenek and Krause (1984), and Yela (1992).

Dispersal ability. Based mainly on Yela (1992) and on other authors such as Koch (1964), French (1969), Malicky (1967 and 1969), Mikkola (1970), and Eitschenberger and Steiniger (1973) we distinguished low-mobility species, of which adults move around 150–500 m and fly relatively low (1); high-mobility species, of which adults fly higher and may reach as far as 1 km daily, sometimes displaying strong intraareal displacements (2); and migratory species, which travel long distances recurrently (3).

Feeding specificity. Species were divided into three feeding-specificity categories according to an increasing degree of polyphagy: monophagous, species feeding on one plant genus only (1); oligophagous, feeding on one plant family (2); and broad polyphagous, feeding on several plants families (3). Classification criteria were based on Allan (1949), Bergmann (1954), Beck (1960), Seppänen (1970), Forster and Wohlfahrt (1960, 1971), Balachowsky (1972), Meszaros (1972, 1974), Carter (1979), Patocka (1980), Hacker (1989), Sauer (1982), Heath and Emmet (1979, 1983), Koch (1984), Merzheevskaya (1989), Fibiger (1990, 1993), Yela (1992), Ronkay and Ronkay (1994, 1995), Ronkay et al. (2001), Hacker et al. (2002), Goater et al. (2003), Zilli et al. (2005), Fibiger and Hacker (2007), and Ahola and Silvonen (2008).

Plant type of larval host plant. Plant type was either herbaceous (1) or woody (2) (Allan 1949; Bergmann 1954; Beck 1960; Seppänen 1970; Forster and Wohlfahrt 1960, 1971; Balachowsky 1972; Meszaros 1972, 1974; Carter 1979; Patocka 1980; Heath and Emmet 1979, 1983; Sauer 1982; Koch 1984; Hacker 1989; Merzheevskaya 1989; Yela 1992; Ahola and Silvonen 2008; the authors' own data was also used).

Species range or distribution type

Taking into account arguments and data in Boursin (1964, 1965), Calle (1974, 1983), Fibiger (1990, 1993), Yela (1992), Ronkay and Ronkay (1994, 1995), Ronkay et al. (2001), Hacker et al. (2002), Goater et al. (2003), Zilli et al. (2005), and Fibiger and Hacker (2007) species were classified as Northern (1), Mediterranean (2), or Tropical-Subtropical (3) according to the baricenter of the species' range.


Based on larval trophic preferences, the habitat of each species is indicated. Distinguishing species were associated with agro-ecosystems (A), grasslands (G), shrublands (S), and woodland (W) (Rejmánek and Spitzer 1982).

Statistical analysis

Species ordination. Categorical Principal Components Analysis was used to evaluate whether biological traits selected were related to habitats with which species are associated. “Princal” module of SPSS v 13 program (SPSS Inc. was used for the analysis.

Comparative analysis. Phylogenetic effects may influence relationships between local abundance and life-history traits. Phylogenetically related species may share several traits; consequently, if one trait is correlated to abundance, other traits shared by this species are also correlated to abundance. This is actually the case in our dataset, so that an examination without taking phylogeny into account resulted in significant effects of every factor considered (Pérez-Guerrero 2001). Thus, a phylogenetically controlled comparative method is needed (Harvey 1996). One of the most frequently used methods to control for phylogeny in comparative studies is phylogenetic independent contrasts (PICs) (Harvey and Pagel 1991). PICs compare attributes of species differing in a specific phenotype within a given taxon level. Each PIC is a different fork in the evolutionary tree, so the comparison within a PIC is independent of the comparison in another PIC. In this paper, relationships between local abundance, life-history traits, and distribution type of an olive-orchard noctuid moth assemblage were analyzed while controlling for phylogenetic effects. The program, CAIC (Comparative Analysis by Independent Contrast, Purvis and Rambaut 1995), was used for the analysis. CAIC requires knowing the phylogeny and branch length. In the absence of a generally accepted detailed phylogeny for Noctuidae (see discussions in Yela 1998; Yela and Kitching 1999; Mitchell et al. 2000; Lafontaine and Fibiger 2006), taxonomic classification of this family was used (based in Lafontaine and Fibiger 2006) assuming that taxonomy reflects phylogeny (Purvis and Rambaut 1995). A direct consequence of this assumption is that all branches in the phylogeny tree are of equal length, i.e. a punctual model of evolution which may produce type I errors (that are assumed independently of the phylogenetic determination; see Purvis et al. 1994, but see also Martins 1996 or Abouheif 1999 for critiques).

In order to examine whether there were differences in abundance among taxa, BRUNCH option included in CAIC was used. BRUNCH takes categorical variables as the predictors and abundance as a continuous variable. If there is no trend between different taxa with respect to the different categories, the average of the contrasts made with BRUNCH for abundance will not differ significantly from zero. The trend was evaluated with one sample t test (Purvis and Rambaut 1995). The sign of the average value reflects the trend of the abundance vs. biological characteristics relationship. To control for a potential effect of migrant, allochthonous moths two analyses were performed, either excluding migratory species or including all species detected (Quinn et al. 1997).


Species ordering

The ordering of the 66 species with respect to biological characteristics is shown in Figure 1. The first two PCA axes explained over 63% of the variation observed in the data. The most correlated life-history traits with the first two PCA axes were number of eggs (ρ= 0.85 and 0.35, respectively) and dispersal ability (ρ= 0.76 and -0.364, respectively). The analysis differentiated species association with regard to defined habitats, indicating that biological features were related to these associations. All species associated with the agro-ecosystem except Sesamia nonagroides Lef. were grouped next to Agrotis spinifera L. A second group containing more species, which were associated with grassland, showed a scattered distribution in the graph and formed small subgroups. The third group was located in the centre of the plot as it was more heterogeneous and comprised of species associated with shrubs, half of the scarce woodland species, and some grassland species together with S. nonagrioides. Finally, the other half of the woodland species appeared far away from the rest in the plot (Figure 1).

Comparative analysis

There were no significant differences in abundance among habitat-associated groups (Table 1). However, abundance varied significantly among species with different dispersal ability and number of generations per year. The positive relationship of these life-history traits with abundance showed that highly mobile, multivoltine taxa were more abundant locally (Table 1).

Analysis of the sample without migratory species (53 remaining species) showed that dispersal ability and number of generations were again related to abundance patterns (Table 2). Once again, the positive relationships showed higher abundance for the species with several generations per year and greater dispersal capacity. It is important to emphasize that only two multivoltine species remained in this analysis. When these species were removed from the analysis (leaving 24 univoltine and 27 bivoltine species), the result was non-significant (t = 2.05; df = 15; P > 0.05).

Figure 1.

Order of 66 species according to life-history traits. Names and numbers of species are given in the Appendix 1 (A: agrosystem species; G: grassland species; S: shrubland species; W: woodland species). High quality figures are available online.


Table 1.

Results of one sample T-test comparing local abundance of 66 species included in the sample for the six life-history traits and habitat (defined on Materials and Methods section).


Table 2.

Results of one sample T-test comparing local abundace of 53 non-migrant species included in the sample for the six life history traits and habitat (defined on Materials and Methods section).


Moreover, the results showed that distribution type also determined differences in abundance for the remaining 53 species (Table 2). It is worth noting that the two multivoltine species were the only species with a tropical-subtropical distribution, the northernmost stable populations of which reach the south of Spain. The analysis showed significant differences in abundance when these species were removed (t = 2.5; df = 7; P < 0.05), revealing that Mediterranean taxa were more abundant than northern ones. The rest of variables showed no significant variation with abundance.


The ordering of the species according to life history traits, habitat, and chorological pattern showed that, at the local scale, there is an association of some of these variables with species abundance so that the axes of the PCA explained 63% of the variation of abundance. Nevertheless, surprisingly no differences in abundance between species associated with different habitats were found, in contrast to Brown (1984), Inkinen (1994), and Quinn et al. (1997), showing that, altogether, life history traits alone do not explain differences in local abundance in olive orchards (despite the clear majority of grassland species). Only singular traits explained the differences. To some extent, this may be an artifact due to the characterisation of the variable ‘habitat’ which does not inform on the range of habitats used by each species, but rather on the main type of habitat used. A few individuals of a few woodland species most likely owe their presence to the remaining riparian forest associated with streams beneath the olive orchards. These results support the idea that conservation of riparian forest has capital consequences for the maintenance of particular species and thus for biodiversity in olive orchard landscapes. Thus, vegetation growing along and beneath rivers and creeks would be worth preserving, in order to maximize the probability of survival of local populations of noctuids associated with hardwood vegetation and, more generally, to maintain higher levels of biodiversity. This may be relevant bearing in mind the functional role of noctuids as prey and hosts (Holloway 1992; Jacobs et al. 2008; Jones et al. 2008; Gassmann et al. 2010 and references therein). Although this research focused on a local pattern, patterns of larger spatial scale in agro-ecosystem can be a further challenge since determinants of abundance may vary depending on scale (Gaston 1994; Brown et al. 1995, 1996; Freckleton et al. 2006; Zuckerberg et al. 2009).

The general patterns found by Inkinen (1994) and Quinn et al. (1997) revealed that variations of trophic traits are associated with differences in abundance. Gaston and Lawton (1988a) found similar results for bracken herbivores. Nevertheless, for a singular agroecosystem such as olive orchards, no relationship was found between trophic traits and abundance (Tables 1 and 2). The results show that the most abundant taxa in olive orchards have a higher dispersal ablility and are able to complete several generations throughout the year. Most noctuid species (except those associated with trees and shurbs) have herbaceous plants (neighbouring plants or “weeds”) as the principal food resource. In olive orchards, due to the type of management, this resource changes dramatically over time (seasonal, ephemeral plants) and space since the herbicide does not cover the whole crop, allowing patches of herbaceous plants to remain (edges of ways, ditches, etc.). Therefore, noctuid species with higher dispersal ability or with a versatile life cycle (facultative multivoltine species) would have more chances to access to food plants and thus have higher resource availability as opposed to the other species. Thus, according to our results and hypotheses of other authors (Blackburn et al. 1996; Blackburn et al. 1997; Gregory and Gaston 2000), species with higher dispersal ability and several generations per year would be more abundance in olive orchards.

When the effect of migrant species was removed (Table 2), the species distribution type also explained differences in abundance. It should be noted that most of the migrant species have a basically tropical-subtropical distribution type; therefore, extra-areal migratory fronts reaching Europe recurrently may mask the result regarding distribution. Once controlled for this effect, results showed higher abundance for Mediterranean taxa than for more northern ones. Given this differential trait and according to the core of their geograpical range (see Materials and Methods section), more abundant species would be those with the baricenter of their geographical range closer to the study site, i.e. Mediterranean species. The study populations of tropical-subtropical and northern (Euro-Asiatic) species are located closer of the edge of their respective geographical ranges. This result would be consistent with the large-scale pattern according to which, considering the entire geographical range of a species, the average local abundance tends to peak towards the core and decline towards the periphery (Hengeveld and Haeck 1981; Brown 1984; Lawton 1993). Several studies showed results following this rule (Hengeveld and Haeck 1981, 1982; Svensson 1992; Tellería and Santos 1993; Brown et al. 1995, 1996; Guo et al. 2005; Antonovics et al. 2006), although other authors (Blackburn et al. 1999; Freckleton et al. 2006; Sagarin et al. 2006; Wilson 2008) found results revealing the controversy of this pattern and the effect of sampling effort.

Therefore, we conclude that the association of the noctuid species to the different habitats is not related to differences in local abundance. Olive-orchard characteristics seem to modulate the general local abundance pattern of noctuids moths, and trophic traits do not explain abundance variation within taxa. In contrast, dispersal ability and number of generations per year explain this variation and support a higher local abundance range. Mediterranean taxa are the most abundant species, revealing a narrow relation between this kind of species, the habitat, and its requirements.

In any case, we have to stress out that our study is, to some degree, a first attempt to take on the issue and that long term monitoring would be necessary to clearly separate external causes of abundance variation (e.g. Mutshinda et al. 2007) from variation in population density depending from biological processes that may be even totally unpredictable (e.g. Beninca et al. 2008).


We are grateful to J. L. Quero for help in translation and moral support, Pedro Jordano and J. J. Cuervo for statistical advice, and Carlos Fernández for hardware equipment. This is a publication of the DITEG research group.



E Abouheif . 1999. A method for testing the assumption of phylogenetic independence in comparative data. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 895–909. Google Scholar


M Ahola , K Silvonen . 2008. Larvae of Northern European Noctuidae , vol. 1 & 2. Apollo Books. Google Scholar


A Allan . 1949. Larval foodplants. Watkins & Doncaster. Google Scholar


J Antonovics , AJ McKane , TJ Newman . 2006. Spatiotemporal dynamics in marginal populations. American Naturalist 167(1): 16–27. Google Scholar


J Baragaño , F Beitia , P Bielza , L Castresana , J Contreras , P del Estai , JR Esteban , A Garrido , J Jacas , A Jiménez , A Lacasa , C de Liñán , A Notario , JA Sánchez , E. Viñuela , JL Yela . 1998. Entomología agroforestal. Plagas de insectos y ácaros de los cultivos, montes y jardines. Ediciones Agrotécnicas. Google Scholar


HS Barlow , IP Woiwod . 1989. Moth diversity of a tropical forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5(1): 37–50. Google Scholar


H Beck . 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen (Noctuidae) Handlungen zur Lavalsystematik der Insekten. Akademie-Verlag. Google Scholar


J Beck , IJ Kitching , KE Linsenmair . 2006. Extending the study of range-abundance relations to tropical insects: sphingid moths in Southeast Asia. Evolutionary Ecology Research 8(4): 677–690. Google Scholar


H Bembenek , R Krause . 1984. Ergebnisse des quantitativen Lichtfanges von Noctuiden in verschiedenen Biozönosen der Hinteren Säshsischen Schweiz. Faunistiche Abhandlungen Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden 11: 67–108. Google Scholar


E Beninca , J Huisman , R Heerkloss , KD Johnk , P Branco , EHV Nes , M Scheffer , SP Ellner . 2008. Chaos in a long term experiment with a plankton community. Nature 451(7180): 822–826. Google Scholar


PM Bennett . 1986. Comparative studies of morphology, life history and ecology among birds. Ph.D. thesis. University of Sussex. Google Scholar


A Bergmann . 1954. Die Grossschmetterlinge Mitteldeutschlands , vol. 4. Urania Verlag. Google Scholar


TM Blackburn . 1991. Comparative and experimental studies of animal life history variation. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Oxford. Google Scholar


TM Blackburn , P Cassey , KJ Gaston . 2006. Variations on a theme: sources of heterogeneity in the form of the interspecific relationship between abundance and distribution. Journal of Animal Ecology 75(6): 1426–1439. Google Scholar


TM Blackburn , KJ Gaston , RD Gregory . 1997. Abundance—range size relationships in British birds: is unexplained variation a product of life history? Ecography 20(5): 466–474. Google Scholar


TM Blackburn , KJ Gaston , R Quinn , RD Gregory . 1999. Do local abundances of British birds change with proximity to range edge? Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 493–505. Google Scholar


TM Blackburn , RJH Beverton , KR Clarke , JH Lawton . 1994. Population abundance and body size in animal assemblages. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 343 (1303): 33–39. Google Scholar


G Boedeltje , JP Bakker , RM Bekker , J Van Groenendael , M Soesbergen . 2003. Plant dispersal in a lowland stream in relation to ocurrence and three specific life-history traits of the species in the species pool. Journal of Ecology 91(5): 855–866. Google Scholar


J. Bourgogne 1951. Ordre des Lépidoptères. Lepidoptera Linné, 1758. In: PP Grassé , editor. Traité de Zoologie 10(1): pp. 174–448, Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Masson et Cie. Google Scholar


Ch Boursin . 1964. Les Noctuidae Trifinae de France et de Belgique. Bulletin mensuel de la Societé Linnéenne de Lyon 33(6): 204–240. Google Scholar


Ch Boursin . 1965. Errata et adennata a mon travail “Les Noctuidae Trifinae de France et de Belgique.” Bulletin mensuel de la Societé Linnéenne de Lyon 34(5): 182–187. Google Scholar


T Broumas , G Haniotakis , C Liaropoulos , T Tomazou , N Ragoussis . 2002. The efficacy of an improved form of the mass-trapping method, for the control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Dipt., Tephritidae), pilot-scale feasibility studies. Journal of Applied Entomology 126(5): 217–223. Google Scholar


JH Brown . 1984. On the relationship between abundance and distribution of species. American Naturalist 124(2): 255–279. Google Scholar


JH Brown , DW Mehlman , GC Stevens . 1995. Spatial variation in abundance. Ecology 76(7): 2028–2043. Google Scholar


JH Brown , GC Stevens , DM Kaufman . 1996. The geographic range: size, shape, boundaries, and internal structure. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27: 597–623. Google Scholar


F Burel , A Butet , YR Delettre , de la Peña N Millán . 2004. Differential response of selected taxa to landscape context and agricultural intensification. Landscape and Urban Planning 67(1–4): 195–204. Google Scholar


JA Calle . 1974. Los Noctuidae españoles. Fenología de los Noctuidae del Sur de Madrid y Norte de Toledo (Lepidoptera, Heterocera). Tesis doctoral. Facultad de Ciencias, sección de Biología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Google Scholar


JA Calle . 1983. Noctuidos españoles. Boletín del servicio contra plagas e inspección fitopatológica, fuera de serie 1: 1–430. Google Scholar


Molina JJ Capel . 1981. Los climas de España. Oikos-Tau. Google Scholar


DJ Carter . 1979. Fam. Noctuidae. The observer's book of caterpillar. Frederick Warne. Google Scholar


RA Cayrol , 1972. Famille des Noctuidae. In: AS Balachowsky , editor. Entomologie appliqée a l'agriculture, vol. 2 Lepidoptères 2, pp. 1255–1520. Masson et Cie. Google Scholar


MJR Cowley , CD Thomas , DB Roy , RJ Wilson , JL León-Cortés , D Gutiérrez , CR Bulman , RM Quinn , D Moss , KJ Gaston . 2001. Density—distribution relationships in British butterflies I. The effect of mobility and spatial scale. Journal of Animal Ecology 70(3): 410–425. Google Scholar


DR Dent , CS Pawar . 1988. The influence of moonlight and weather on catches of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in light and pheromone traps. Bulletin of Entomolgical Research 78(3): 365–377. Google Scholar


U Eitschenberger , H Steiniger . 1973. Aufruf zur internationalen Zusammenarbeit an der Erforschung des Wanderphänomens bei Insekten. Atalanta 4(4): 309–321. Google Scholar


A Erhardt , JA Thomas . 1991. Lepidoptera as indicators of change in semi-natural grasslands of lowland and upland Europe. In: NM Collins , JA Thomas , editors. The conservation of insect and their habitats , pp. 213–236. Academic Press. Google Scholar


O Eriksson , A Jakobsson . 1998. Abundance, distribution and life history of grassland plants, a comparative study of 81 species. Journal of Ecology 86(6): 922–933. Google Scholar


M Fibiger . 1990. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol 1: Noctuinae I. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


M Fibiger . 1993. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 2: Noctuinae II. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


M Fibiger , H Hacker . 2007. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 9: Amphipyrinae, Condicinae, Eriopinae, Xyleninae. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


RP Freckleton , D Noble , TJ Webb . 2006. Distributions of habitat suitability and the abundance-occupancy relationship. American Naturalist 167(2): 260–275. Google Scholar


RA French . 1969. Migration of Laphygma exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) to the British Isles in relation to large-scale weather systems. Journal of Animal Ecology 38(1): 199–210. Google Scholar


W Forster , TA Wohlfahrt . 1960. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas , vol. 3: Spinner und Schwärmer (Bombyces und Sphinges). Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart. Google Scholar


W Forster , TA Wohlfahrt . 1971. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas , vol. 4: Eulen (Noctuidae). Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart. Google Scholar


AJ Gassmann , SP Stock , BE Tabashnik , MS Singer . 2010. Tritrophic effects of host plants on an herbivore-pathogen interaction. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103(3): 371–378. Google Scholar


KJ Gaston . 1994. Rarity. Chapmann & Hall. Google Scholar


KJ Gaston , TM Blackburn , RD Gregory . 1997. Abundance-range size relationships of breeding and wintering birds in Britain: a comparative analysis. Ecography 20(6): 569–579. Google Scholar


KJ Gaston , JH Lawton . 1988a. Patterns in body size, population dynamics and regional distribution of bracken herbivores. American Naturalist 132(5): 662–680. Google Scholar


KJ Gaston , JH Lawton . 1988b. Patterns in the distribution and abundance of insect populations. Nature 331(6158): 709–712. Google Scholar


KJ Gaston , JH Lawton . 1990. Effects of scale and habitat on the relationship between regional distribution and local abundance. Oikos 58(3): 329–335. Google Scholar


PA Gaydecki . 1984. A quantification of the behavioral dynamics of certain Lepidoptera in response to light. Ph.D. Dissertation, Ecological Physics Research Group, Cranfield Institute of Technology. Google Scholar


B Goater , L Ronkay , M Fibiger . 2003. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 10: Catocalinae, Plusiinae. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


MR Gómez Bustillo , M Arroyo Varela , JL Yela . 1986. Mariposas de la Península Ibérica, vol. 5: Heteróceros III (Noctuidae, 1). ICONA, Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Google Scholar


RD Gregory , KJ Gaston . 2000. Explanations of commonness and rarity in British breeding birds, separating resource use and resource availability. Oikos 88(3): 515–526. Google Scholar


PJ Gullan , PS Cranston . 2005. The insects: an outline of Entomology , 3rd edition. Blackwell. Google Scholar


Q Guo , M Taper , M Schoenberger , J Brandie . 2005. Spatial-temporal population dynamics across species range: from centre to margin. Oikos 108(1): 47–57. Google Scholar


H Hacker . 1989. Die Noctuidae Griechenlands. Mit einer Übersicht über die Fauna es Balkanraumes. Herbipoliana 2: 1–589. Google Scholar


H Hacker , L Ronkay , M Hreblay . 2002. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 4: Hadeninae I. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


DF Hardwick . 1972. The influence of temperature and moon phase on the activity of noctuid moths. Canadian Entomologist 104(11): 1767–1770. Google Scholar


PH Harvey . 1996. Phylogenies for ecologists. Journal of Animal Ecology 65(3): 255–263. Google Scholar


PH Harvey , MD Pagel . 1991. The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford University Press. Google Scholar


F He , KJ Gaston . 2000. Occupancy-abundance relationships and sampling scales. Ecography 23(4): 503–511. Google Scholar


J Heath , A Emmet . (eds). 1979, 1983. Noctuidae. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Curwen Books; Harley Books. Google Scholar


R Hengeveld , J Haeck . 1981. The distribution of abundance. II. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 84: 257–284. Google Scholar


R Hengeveld , J Haeck . 1982. The distribution of abundance. I. Measurements. Journal of Biogeography 9(4): 303–316. Google Scholar


JD Holloway , 1992. Moths. In: H Lieth , MJA Werger , editors. Ecosystems of the world , vol. 14B: Tropical rain forest ecosystems, pp. 437–453. Elsevier. Google Scholar


J Holloway , J Bradley , Carter , D . 1992. IIE Guides to insects of importance to man , vol. 1: Lepidoptera. International Institute of Entomology (IIE), CAB International. Google Scholar


P Inkinen . 1994. Distribution and abundance in British noctuid moths revisited. Annales Zoologici Fennici 31(2): 235–243. Google Scholar


N Jennings , MO Pocock . 2009. Relationships between sensitivity to agricultural intensification and ecological traits of insectivorous mammals and arthropods. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1195–1203. Google Scholar


DS Jacobs , JM Ratcliffe , JH Fullard . 2008. Beware of bats, beware of birds: the auditory responses of eared moths to bat and bird predation. Behavioral Ecology 19(6): 1333–1342. Google Scholar


DH Janzen . 1988. Ecological characterization of a Costa Rican dry forest caterpillar fauna. Biotropica 20(2): 120–135. Google Scholar


J Jones , P Doran , RT Holmes . 2008. Climate and food synchronize regional forest bird abundances. Ecology 84(11): 3024–3032. Google Scholar


M Koch . 1964. Zur Gruppeneinteilung der Wanderfalter. Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaf 15: 131– 134. Google Scholar


M Koch . 1984. Schmetterlinge. Neumann Verlag. Google Scholar


W Kunin , KJ Gaston . 1993. The biology of rarity: patterns, causes and consequences. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(8): 298–301. Google Scholar


JD Lafontaine , M Fibiger . 2006. Revised higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist 138(5): 610–635. Google Scholar


JH Lawton . 1990. Species richness and populations dynamics of animal assemblages. Patterns in body size: abundance space. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 330(1257): 283–291. Google Scholar


JH Lawton . 1993. Range, population abundance and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8(11): 409–413. Google Scholar


H Löbel . 1982. Bedeutung und Stellenwert verschiedener Sammel und Arbeitsmethoden für die faunistische Erfassung von Eulen und Spannern (Lep. Noctuidae, Geometridae). Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte 26: 65–69. Google Scholar


Z Lososová , M Chytrý , I Kühn . 2008. Plant attributes determining the regional abundance of weeds on central European arable land. Journal of Biogeography 35(1): 177–187. Google Scholar


ML Luff , IP Woiwod . 1995. Insect as indicators of land-use change: a European perspective, focusing on moths and ground beetles. In: R Harrington , NE Stork , editors. Insects in a changing environment , pp. 399–422. Academic Press. Google Scholar


H Malicky . 1967. Aktuelle Probleme der Wanderfalterforschung. Entomologische Zeitung 77: 73–88. Google Scholar


H Malicky . 1969. Das Erkennen von Wanderfalten mit der Lichtfallenmethode. Atalanta 2: 227–233. Google Scholar


EP Martins . 1996. Conducting phylogenetic comparative studies when the phylogeny is not known. Evolution 50(1): 12–22. Google Scholar


OI Merzheevskaya . 1989. Larvae of owlet moths (Noctuidae): biology, morphology and classification. E. J. Brill/Flora & Fauna Publications. Google Scholar


Z Meszaros . 1967. Lebensform-Gruppen schädlicher Lepidopteren und Prognose einzelner Arten mittels Litchfallen. Acta Phytopatologica et Entomoligica Hungarica 2: 251–266. Google Scholar


Z Meszaros . 1972. Data to the knowledge of the natural foodplants of lepidopterous larvae, II. Folia entomologica Hungarica 25: 473–480. Google Scholar


Z Meszaros . 1974. Data to the knowledge of the natural foodplants of lepidopterous larvae, III. Folia entomologica Hungarica 27: 113–117. Google Scholar


K Mikkola . 1970. The interpretation of long range migrations of Spodoptera exigua Hb. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 39(3): 593–598. Google Scholar


A Mitchell , Ch Mitter , JC Regier . 2000. More taxa or more characters revisited: combining data from nuclear protein-encoding genes for phylogenetic analyses of Noctuoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Systematic Biology 49(2): 202–224. Google Scholar


TI Morris , M Campos . 1999. Entomofauna depredadora del suelo del olivar. Zoologica Baetica 10: 149–160. Google Scholar


TI Morris , M Campos , NA Kidd , MA Jervis , WO Symondson . 1999. Dynamics of the predatory arthropod community in Spanish olive groves. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 1(3): 219–228. Google Scholar


JJ Morrone , A Ruggiero , 2001. Cómo planificar un análisis biogeográfico. Dugesiana 7: 1–8. Google Scholar


RC Muirhead-Thomson . 1991. Trap responses of flying insects. Academic Press. Google Scholar


CM Mutshinda , RB O'Hara , IP Woiwod . 2008. Species abundance dynamics under neutral assumptions: a Bayesian approach to the controversy. Functional Ecology 22(2): 340–347. Google Scholar


M Nieminen . 1996. Risk of population extinction in moths, effects of host plant characteristics. Oikos 76(3): 475–484. Google Scholar


V Novotny , DP rozd , SE Miller , M Kulfan , M Janda , Y Basset , GD Weiblen . 2006. Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests? Science 313(5790): 1115–1118. Google Scholar


E Ortiz , J Templado . 1982. Los cromosomas de ocho especies de Noctuidos (Lep., Heterocera). Eos 57: 187–193. Google Scholar


J Patocka . 1980. Die Raupen und Puppen der Eichenschmetterlinge Mitteleuropas. Monographien zur Angewandten Entomologie 23: 1–188. Google Scholar


S Pérez-Guerrero . 2001. Noctuidos de los agrosistemas del Bajo Guadalquivir: descripción de un agregado, organización temporal y estudio de las estrategias biológicas de sus especies integrantes. MsD Thesis. Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba. Google Scholar


B Persson . 1976. Influence of weather and nocturnal illumination on the activity and abundance of population of nocruids (Lepidoptera) in south coastal Queensland. Bulletin of Entomological Research 66(1): 33–63. Google Scholar


A Purvis , JL Gittleman , HK Luh . 1994. Truth or consequences: effects of phylogenetic accuracy of two comparative methods. Journal of Theortical Biology 167(3): 293–300. Google Scholar


A Purvis , A Rambaut . 1995. Comparative analysis by independent contrasts (CAIC), an Apple Macintosh application for analysing comparative data. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 11(3): 247–251. Google Scholar


RM Quinn , KJ Gaston , TM Blackburn , BC Eversham . 1997. Abundance-range size relationships of Macrolepidoptera in Britain: the effects of taxonomy and life history variables. Ecological Entomology 22(4): 453–461. Google Scholar


MA Ramos , JM. Lobo , M Esteban . 2001. Ten years inventorying the Iberian fauna: results and perspectives. Biodiversity and Conservation 10(1): 19–28. Google Scholar


P Ramos , M Campos , JM Ramos . 1998. Long-term study on the evaluation of yield and economic losses caused by Prays oleae Bern in the olive crop of Granada (southern Spain). Crop Protection 17(8): 645–647. Google Scholar


A Redondo , A. Casado , JM Millán . 1994. Los arroyos del término municipal de Bujalance. Cuadernos del Ayuntamiento de Bujalance. Consejería de Cultura del Ilustre Ayuntamiento de Bujalance. Google Scholar


M. Rejmánek , K Spitzer . 1982. Bionomic strategies and long-term fluctuations in abundance of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 79(2): 81–96. Google Scholar


G Ronkay , L Ronkay . 1994. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 6: Cuculliinae I. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


G Ronkay , L Ronkay . 1995. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 7: Cuculliinae II. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


L Ronkay , JL Yela , M Hreblay . 2001. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 5: Hadeninae II. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


F Ruano , C Lozano , P Garcia , A Pena , A Tinaut , F Pascual , M Campos . 2004. Use of arthropods for the evaluation of the oliveorchard management regimes. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 6(2): 111–120. Google Scholar


RD Sagarin , SD Gaines , B Gaylord . 2006. Moving beyond assumptions to understand abundance distributions across the ranges of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(9): 524–530. Google Scholar


F Sauer . 1982. Raupe und Schmetterling nach Farbfotos erkannt. Fauna Verlag. Google Scholar


S Scalercio , M Infusino , IP Woiwod . 2009. Optimising the sampling window for moth indicator communities. Journal of Insect Conservation 13(6): 583–591. Google Scholar


EJ Seppänen . 1970. Suurperhostoukkien ravintokasvit. The foodoplants of the larvae of the Macrolepidoptera of Finland. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Google Scholar


WA Shehata , SS Abou-Elkhair , AA Youssef , FN Nasr . 2003. Biological studies on the olive leaf moth, Palpita unionalis Hubner (Lepid., Pyralidae), and the olive moth, Prays oleae Bernard (Lepid., Yponomeutidae). Journal of Pest Science 76(6): 155–158. Google Scholar


KS Summerville , TO Crist . 2008. Structure and conservation of lepidopteran communities in managed forests of northeastern North America: a review. The Canadian Entomologist 140(4):475–494. Google Scholar


KS Summerville , LM Ritter , TO Crist . 2004. Forest moth taxa as indicators of lepidopteran richness and habitat disturbance: a preliminary assessment. Biological Conservation 116(1): 9–18. Google Scholar


BW Svensson . 1992. Changes in occupancy, niche breadth and abundance of three Gyrinus species as their respective range limits are approached. Oikos 63(1): 147–156. Google Scholar


RAJ Taylor . 1986. Time-series analysis of numbers of Lepidoptera caught at light traps in East- Africa and effects of moonlight and trap efficiency. Bulletin of Entomological Research 76(4): 593–60. Google Scholar


LR Taylor , CI Carter . 1961. The analysis of numbers and distribution in an aerial population of macrolepidoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 113(12): 369–386. Google Scholar


LR Taylor , IP Woiwod . 1980. Temporal stability as a density-dependent species caracteristics. Journal of Animal Ecology 49(1): 209–224. Google Scholar


JL Tellería , T Santos . 1993. Distributional patterns of insectivorous passerines in the Iberian forests: does abundance decrease near the border? Journal of Biogeography 20(2): 235–240. Google Scholar


CB Williams . 1936. The influence of moonlight on the activity of certain nocturnal insects, particularly of the family Noctuidae, as indicated by a light trap. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 226(537): 357–389. Google Scholar


CB Williams . 1940. An analysis of four years captures of insects in a light traps. Part II. The effect of weather conditions on insect activity; and the estimation and forecasting of changes in the insect populations. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90(8): 227–306. Google Scholar


CB Williams . 1961. Studies in the effect of weather conditions on the activity and abundance of insect populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 244(713): 331–378. Google Scholar


PD Wilson . 2008. The pervasive influence of sampling and methodological artefacts on a macroecological pattern: the abundanceoccupancy relationship. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17(4): 457–464. Google Scholar


JL Yela . 1992. Los Noctuidos (Lepidoptera) de la Alcarria (España central) y su relación con las principales formaciones vegetales de porte arbóreo. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Google Scholar


Yela , JL . 1997. Noctuidos del área iberobalear: adiciones y correcciones a la lista sistemática, con consideraciones micro y macroevolutivas y una propuesta filogenética global (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Zapateril : 7: 91–190. Google Scholar


JL Yela , M Holyoak . 1997. Effects of moonlight and meteorological factors on light and bait trap catches of noctuid moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology 26(6): 1283–1290. Google Scholar


JL Yela , IJ Kitching . 1999. La filogenia de Noctuidos, revisada. Noctuid phylogeny revisited (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 26: 485–520. Google Scholar


JH Zar . 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall. Google Scholar


A Zilli , L Ronkay , M Fibiger . 2005. Noctuidae Europaeae , vol. 8: Apameini. Entomological Press. Google Scholar


B Zuckerberg , WF Porter , K Corwin . 2009. The consistency and stability of abundanceoccupancy relationships in large-scale population dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology 78(1): 172–181. Google Scholar


Appendix 1

Appendix 1.

Categories of life-history traits for 66 species evaluated (see Materials and Methods). N° is the identification number of the species, H habitat of the species, NE number of eggs, NG number of generations per year, DA dispersal ability, FS Feeding specifity, PL plant type of larval host plant, D distribution and NI number of individuals observed per species.

This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.
Sergio Pérez-Guerrero, Alberto José Redondo, and José Luis Yela "Local Abundance Patterns of Noctuid Moths in Olive Orchards: Life-History Traits, Distribution Type and Habitat Interactions," Journal of Insect Science 11(32), 1-19, (1 March 2011).
Received: 12 January 2010; Accepted: 1 October 2010; Published: 1 March 2011
dispersal ability
feeding specificity
Back to Top