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Living in unstable habitats is expected to decrease the intensity of isolation by distance in populations through the need for frequent movements of individuals. Insects associated with fruiting bodies of fungi therefore are supposed to have weak spatial genetic structure of populations compared with those living in more stable habitats. With the use of an amplified fragment length polymorphism technique, this study investigated the isolation by distance, inbreeding, and genetic diversity in Diaperis boleti (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a fungivorous saproxylic beetle that inhabits sporocarps of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bulliard) Murrill (Polyporales) on trees growing in highly-fragmented agricultural landscapes. Isolation by distance was tested with spatial autocorrelation analysis of kinship (individual-based approach) and correlating matrices of genetic and geographic distances with the Mantel test (population-based approach). These results were compared with the results obtained for saproxylic beetles living in the same landscape but differing in ecological preferences. It was shown that the species dependent on sporocarps of wooddecomposing fungi had higher variability, lower individual inbreeding, and less intensive isolation by distance pattern than saproxylic beetles living in tree hollows. It was also demonstrated that spatial autocorrelation analysis of kinship is a more sensitive approach for detecting finescale spatial genetic structure than the Mantel test.