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The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most destructive pests of rice. Electrophysiological responses of this species to 38 synthetic volatiles known to be released from rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using the electroantennogram (EAG) method. Compounds that elicited the strongest EAG responses for each physiological condition were selected for EAG dose-response tests at five concentrations. These compounds included: methyl salicylate, heptanol, linalool, cyclohexanol, and 2-heptanone for one-day-old male moths; heptanol, hexanal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and nonadecane for one-dayold females; methyl salicylate, heptanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol for three-dayold males; linalool, heptanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, 2-heptanone, and hexanal for three-day-old females; 2-heptanone, cyclohexanol, linalool, heptanol, and methyl salicylate for five-day-old virgin females; and methyl benzoate, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, heptanol, linalool, and hexanal for fiveday- old mated females. Female and male C. medinalis exhibited broad overlap in their EAG responses, and there was no clear difference between male and female EAG responses to different compounds. Statistical analyses revealed that both volatile compound chemical structure and C. medinalis physiological condition (age, sex, and mating condition) had an effect on EAG response.