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11 July 2019 The functional roles of mammals in ecosystems
Thomas E. Lacher, Ana D. Davidson, Theodore H. Fleming, Emma P. Gómez-Ruiz, Gary F. McCracken, Norman Owen-Smith, Carlos A. Peres, Stephen B. Vander Wall
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Abstract

The diverse functional roles of over 6,000 species of extant mammals that range in body size across eight orders of magnitude, from blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to tiny Etruscan shrews (Suncus etruscus), contribute to shaping Earth's ecosystems. Large mammalian herbivores (e.g., African elephants [Loxodonta africana], American bison [Bison bison], hippopotamuses [Hippopotamus amphibius]) and carnivores (e.g., wolves [Canis lupus], pumas [Puma concolor], sea otters [Enhydra lutris]) often have significant effects on primary producers in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine systems through nutrient cycling, energy flow, and the exertion of bottom-up and top-down processes. Small mammals, like bats, are important pollinators, dispersers of fruits, and consumers of arthropods, and others, especially rodents and primates, are important predators and dispersers of seeds. Many of these mammal-mediated processes occur simultaneously in the same ecosystem, and have significant effects on community structure of primary producers that in turn alter communities of other vertebrates and invertebrates. Many mammals also are ecosystem engineers (e.g., elephants, American beavers [Castor canadensis], porcupines [Erithezon dorsatum], prairie dogs [Cynomys spp.]) that create, significantly modify, or destroy habitat, and by doing so, they alter ecosystem structure and function and increase habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity. The extensive influence mammals have on ecosystems results in important services that contribute to human well-being, such as pollination, insect pest control, and bioturbation of soils. The rapid declines in abundance of many mammal populations and the associated increase in extinction risk raise conservation concerns for mammals. To maintain mammalian diversity and the critical ecosystem processes they provide, scientists need to mobilize concern for their status and strive for more effective and comprehensive conservation action. We provide insights and synthesis on the ecological role of mammals and highlight key research questions and future directions for their conservation.

© 2019 American Society of Mammalogists, www.mammalogy.org
Thomas E. Lacher, Ana D. Davidson, Theodore H. Fleming, Emma P. Gómez-Ruiz, Gary F. McCracken, Norman Owen-Smith, Carlos A. Peres, and Stephen B. Vander Wall "The functional roles of mammals in ecosystems," Journal of Mammalogy 100(3), 942-964, (11 July 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyy183
Received: 30 January 2018; Accepted: 3 January 2019; Published: 11 July 2019
JOURNAL ARTICLE
23 PAGES


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KEYWORDS
ecosystem engineers
ecosystem function
ecosystem services
energetics
nutrient cycling
pest control
pollination
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