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1 November 2002 BODY MASS AND LIPID CHANGES BY HIBERNATING REPRODUCTIVE AND NONREPRODUCTIVE BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS)
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Abstract

This study, conducted on female black bears from 3 study areas in the Rocky Mountains, showed that pregnant females in a state of diapause during early winter had about 89% larger fat depots than did nonreproductive females going into hibernation. Fat provided 92% of the total energy for lactation and gestation. Rates of fat loss (g/day) were 37% greater and protein loss about 2.4 times higher for reproductive females than for nonreproductive females. The cost of winter reproduction, including gestation and lactation, was 1,432 kJ/day to produce 2 young. Although reproduction required elevated protein breakdown, rates of overall protein loss were relatively small, perhaps due to a short period of implantation and an extraordinary ability to hydrolyze urea.

H. J. Harlow, T. Lohuis, R. G. Grogan, and T. D I. Beck "BODY MASS AND LIPID CHANGES BY HIBERNATING REPRODUCTIVE AND NONREPRODUCTIVE BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS)," Journal of Mammalogy 83(4), 1020-1025, (1 November 2002). https://doi.org/10.1644/1545-1542(2002)083<1020:BMALCB>2.0.CO;2
Accepted: 28 March 2002; Published: 1 November 2002
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