We examined spectral features that characterize the highly stereotyped, repetitive vocalizations of New World baiomyine rodents. Although stereotyped vocal signaling, described as “song,” has been documented in Scotinomys (singing or brown mice), its occurrence was unknown in the sister taxon Baiomys (pygmy mice). We also recorded vocalizations of females, about which little information was previously available. Although examination of morphological and molecular data supports a close relationship between the 2 baiomyine genera, we identified song as a complex behavior that further underpins the monophyly of the Baiomyini. Both spectral and temporal features render these songs highly localizable, a characteristic of possible utility for courtship and other social behavior. The song of Baiomys is confined entirely to the ultrasonic spectrum, unlike that of Scotinomys, which uses a broader range of frequencies. The intensity, identity, and predictability of vocalization suggest that these songs are purposeful and carry information important for species identification.
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