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1 May 2002 Strategies for the Management of Resistance in Mosquitoes to the Microbial Control Agent Bacillus sphaericus
Nayer S. Zahiri, Tianyun Su, Mir S. Mulla
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Bacillus sphaericus (Bsph) strain 2362 has been recognized as a promising mosquito larvicide, and various preparations of this strain have been tested and used in mosquito control programs worldwide. This control agent has advantages of high efficacy, specificity, persistence, and environmental safety. However, resistance in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes to Bsph has occurred in both laboratory and field populations, necessitating development of resistance management strategies. Studies were initiated aiming at reversing previously established Bsph resistance in a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say by selections with Bti alone, Bti and Bsph in rotation, or mixture. Partial restoration of susceptibility to Bsph was achieved by selection of resistant colony for 10 generations with Bti alone at LC80. After this colony was switched back to Bsph selection for 20 generations, resistance to Bsph partially increased to a stable level. Selections of Bsph-resistant colonies with Bti and Bsph in rotation or mixture resulted in steady decline of resistance over 30 generations, with rapid decline in resistance noted in the initial 10–15 generations. It is interesting to note that selections with Bti and Bsph in rotation increased susceptibility to Bti in Bsph-resistant colony. It is promising that selection with Bti alone, Bsph and Bti in rotation, or mixture have a potential for developing practical strategies to overcome acquired resistance to Bsph in Cx. quinquefasciatus populations.

Nayer S. Zahiri, Tianyun Su, and Mir S. Mulla "Strategies for the Management of Resistance in Mosquitoes to the Microbial Control Agent Bacillus sphaericus," Journal of Medical Entomology 39(3), 513-520, (1 May 2002).
Received: 19 September 2001; Accepted: 1 January 2002; Published: 1 May 2002

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Bacillus sphaericus
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis
Culex quinquefasciatus
resistance management
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