Member(s) of the Anopheles barbirostris group Reid, particularly Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles campestris Reid are the suspected vectors of Plasmodium vivax in Pa Rai (Aranyaprathet, Sa Kaeo province). To determine if An. barbirostris, An. campestris, or both, are present in Pa Rai and to determine their potential to transmit malaria, a field and laboratory study was conducted. Isofemale colonizations of wild caught mosquitoes captured by landing catches were made for species confirmation and to determine the mosquito life cycle. Pupal morphology indicated all mosquitoes were An. campestris. During the late rainy season (October and November), An. campestris populations comprised 78.6% of all females captured by human landing catches and 7.1% of mosquitoes in a cow-baited trap. The biting activity cycle peaked between 2000 and 0100 hours and was highest (17.6 bites per person per hour) at 2300 hours. More An. campestris bit people indoors (nine bites per person per hour) than outdoors (four bites per person per hour). Immature An. campestris were found in ponds, swamps, rice-fields, puddles, marshes, ground pools, and pits with open sunlight to partial shade. The time from egg hatch to adult was 18–47 d and 14–22 d under laboratory (25.0–27.0°C) and ambient (26–32°C) conditions, respectively. The fecundity of An. campestris ranged from 173 to 311 eggs. Based on experimental infections, An. campestris was able to support the sporogonic cycle of P. vivax with 76.2 and 23.8% oocyst and sporozoite formation rate, respectively. An. campestris shows high potential as a malaria vector in Pa Rai.
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Vol. 39 • No. 4