A 2-yr entomological study was carried out in Kerala, south India, to identify the mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and to determine their seasonal abundance and infection. In total, 150,454 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 18 species were collected from vegetation surrounding cattle sheds and pigsties in villages at dusk. Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (66.7%) was the most abundant species, with increases in numbers associated with rice cultivation. JE virus isolations were made from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Mansonia indiana Edwards. Based on high abundance and frequent JE virus infection, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus seems to be the most important vector, whereas Ma. indiana is probably a secondary vector.
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