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1 November 2008 Diving Behavior in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): Avoidance of a Predacious Wolf Spider (Araneae: Lycosidae) in Relation to Life Stage and Water Depth
Kyoko Futami, George Sonye, Peter Akweywa, Satoshi Kaneko, Noboru Minakawa
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Abstract

It has been suggested that mosquito larvae and pupae dive to avoid predators. We tested this predator-avoidance hypothesis by using immature Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa messingerae (Stand) (Araneae: Lycosidae). Because previous studies have suggested that wolf spiders are poor predators of immature mosquitoes, we first examined the predatory ability of the wolf spider and found that the spider was effective at capturing all stages of larvae and pupae. The mortality from experimental cups containing deep water increased with the age of mosquitoes, with the exception of pupae. In contrast, this trend was not observed in shallow water. In particular, mortality was significantly lower in deep water during the second instar. During the third instar, the opposite trend was observed. When the effect of cannibalism was excluded by subtracting the number of missing mosquitoes for the treatment without spiders from those with spiders, the cannibalism corrected mortality was significantly lower in deep water during the second instar. The duration of diving by larvae and pupae decreased with age. With the exception of first instar, diving frequency also decreased with age. We postulate that this diving behavior allows An. gambiae to escape predation by wolf spiders, which supports the predator-avoidance hypothesis. This study indicates some important implications for vector control.

Kyoko Futami, George Sonye, Peter Akweywa, Satoshi Kaneko, and Noboru Minakawa "Diving Behavior in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): Avoidance of a Predacious Wolf Spider (Araneae: Lycosidae) in Relation to Life Stage and Water Depth," Journal of Medical Entomology 45(6), 1050-1056, (1 November 2008). https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2008)45[1050:DBIAGD]2.0.CO;2
Received: 8 October 2007; Accepted: 9 July 2008; Published: 1 November 2008
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KEYWORDS
Anopheles gambiae
diving
malaria
predator avoidance
wolf spider
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