Forcipomyia taiwana (Shiraki), a biting midge, is one of the most annoying bloodsucking pests in Taiwan. In this study, partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase II from 113 individuals collected from 11 locations around the island were analyzed to delineate the differentiation pattern and possible dispersal processes of F. taiwana in Taiwan. The uncorrected nucleotide divergences, composed of mostly transition substitutions, were high (up to 2.7%) among the samples. Average comparable variations (≈0.7%) were found within and between populations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that several distinct lineages exist and some can be found simultaneously in some populations. A relationship between sequence divergences among populations and their relative geographical distances was observed. Moreover, haplotype diversity was high in all populations, and low to middle levels (Fst = 0.004–0.288) of genetic differentiation were found among populations. Linearized calibration from sequence divergences and phylogenetic analysis showed that different ancestral lineages of F. taiwana possibly emerged as early as 0.6 million years ago. Taken together, genetic exchanges among these divergently ancestral lineages, likely caused by recent artificial events, have possibly led to the similarly diversified compositions of F. taiwana populations all around Taiwan nowadays.
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Vol. 46 • No. 2