This study examined the effects of different life stages (first, second, third, fourth, and five instars; adult females and adult males) and feeding regimes (starved and blood fed) on the active movement activity of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), under mixed-stage conditions, We used an extended arena made from Tygon tube coils and observed the movement frequency and movement distance at selected time intervals up to 120 h. The fifth instars and adult males and females showed significantly (P < 0.01) greater movement frequency compared with the other stages. The first and second instars showed limited movement (<8 m) over the experimental period. Starved bed bugs showed greater movement frequency compared with blood-fed bed bugs, with the exception of adult females. Blood-fed adult females exhibited significantly (P < 0.01) greater movement frequency and distance compared with starved females. Blood-fed females moved up to 42.3 m over 120 h. Regression analysis between movement distance of the fifth instars and adults and the time intervals revealed a positive relationship (r2 = 0.6583; P < 0.01), suggesting that delays in bed bug control efforts will increase the risk of the greater infestation. During bed bug inspection, the presence of only late instars and adults in premises would indicate a new infestation, whereas an established infestation likely would consist of mixed stages.
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