We conducted a series of field experiments in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate the efficacy of a variety of insecticides and insecticide application technologies for the control of phlebotomine sand flies at Tallil Airbase, Iraq. During the experiments, 53,263 sand flies were collected. The experiments evaluated the following: 1) routine sand fly control operations using a variety of residual and area-wide insecticides; 2) a combination of five different insecticide application methods in and around tents; 3) residual application of lambda-cyhalothrin and ultra-low volume application of Pyrethrins in houses; 4) carbaryl and lambda-cyhalothrin applied as barrier sprays; 5) a deltamethrin-impregnated fence; 6) lambda-cyhalothrin applied as a residual spray in concrete manholes; 7) deltamethrin-treated flooring in tents; and 8) ultra-low volume-applied malathion. Although some of the experiments resulted in limited reductions in the number of sand flies collected in light traps, in no instance did we completely eliminate sand flies or reduce populations for a sustained period. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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