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1 September 2012 Toxicity of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Zanthoxylum armatum Oil Constituents and Related Compounds to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)
Tran Trung Hieu, Soon-Il Kim, Young-Joon Ahn
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Zanthoxylum plants (Rutaceae) have drawn attention because they contain insecticidal principles against insects. An assessment was made of the insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate and Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, their 28 constituents, and eight structurally related compounds against female stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Results were compared with those of two organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Potent fumigant toxicity was observed with cuminaldehyde, thymol, (1S)-(-)-verbenone, (-)-myrtenal, carvacrol, (S)-(Z)-verbenol, Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate, cuminyl alcohol, Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, piperitone, (-)-(Z)-myrtanol, and citronellal (LC50, 0.075–0.456 µg/cm3). However, they were five orders of magnitude less toxic than either chlorpyrifos or dichlorvos. An in vitro bioassay using female fly heads indicates that strong AChE inhibition was produced by citronellyl acetate, α-pinene, thymol, carvacrol, and α-terpineol (1.20–2.73 mM), but no direct correlation between fly toxicity and AChE inhibition by the test compounds was observed. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as carbon skeleton, degrees of saturation and types of functional groups, and vapor pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicities of the test monoterpenoids to stable flies. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on Z. piperitum and Z. armatum oil-derived materials as potential insecticides for the control of stable fly populations.

© 2012 Entomological Society of America
Tran Trung Hieu, Soon-Il Kim, and Young-Joon Ahn "Toxicity of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Zanthoxylum armatum Oil Constituents and Related Compounds to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 49(5), 1084-1091, (1 September 2012).
Received: 5 March 2012; Accepted: 1 June 2012; Published: 1 September 2012

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acetylcholinesterase inhibition
botanical insecticide
Stomoxys calcitrans
Zanthoxylum armatum
Zanthoxylum piperitum
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