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1 July 2013 Infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
Alia Zayed, Mustafa M. Soliman, Mohamed M. El-Shazly
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Susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) Sorokin (Ma79) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) was evaluated at two different temperatures. The ability of the fungus to reinfect healthy sand flies was followed up for ≈20 wk and the effect of in vivo repassage on the enhancement of its virulence was assessed. The fungus reduced the adult emergence at 26 ± 1°C when applied to larval diet. Six spore concentrations were used in the bioassays ranging from 1 × 106 to 5 × 108 spores/ml. Mortality decreased significantly when the temperature was raised to 31 ± 1°C at all tested concentrations. Fungus-treated vials were assayed against sand fly larvae at different time lapses without additional reapplication of the fungus in the media to determine whether the level of inocula persisting in the media was sufficient to reinfect healthy sand flies. Twenty weeks postapplication, there were still enough infectious propagules of Ma79 to infect 40% of P. papatasi larvae. A comparison between the infectivity of 10 subsequent in vitro cultures and the host-passed inocula of the fungus against sand fly larvae was conducted. Mortalities of P. papatasi larvae changed significantly when exposed to inocula passed through different insects. Presented data can provide vector control decision makers and end users with fundamental information for the introduction and application of M. anisopliae as an effective control agent against the main cutaneous leishmaniasis old-world vector P. papatasi.

© 2013 Entomological Society of America
Alia Zayed, Mustafa M. Soliman, and Mohamed M. El-Shazly "Infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) to Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions," Journal of Medical Entomology 50(4), 796-803, (1 July 2013).
Received: 31 October 2012; Accepted: 1 March 2013; Published: 1 July 2013

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biological control
fungal persistence
Metarhizium anisopliae
sand flies
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