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18 September 2018 Argemone mexicana (Papaverales: Papavaraceae) as an Alternative for Mosquito Control: First Report of Larvicidal Activity of Flower Extract
Carlos A. Granados-Echegoyen, Manuel Jesús Chan-Bacab, Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales, Alfonso Vásquez-López, Luicita Lagunez-Rivera, Fidel Diego-Nava, Christine Gaylarde
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Abstract

Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world. The indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides has led to the development of resistance in mosquito populations worldwide. The effect of continuous exposure to crude extracts of Argemone mexicana, the Mexican poppy, on the development and growth stages of second-instar larvae of the mosquito was studied, along with qualitative chemical analysis of the different plant parts. Inhibition, mortality, and larval and pupal duration phases were assessed. Second-instar mosquito larvae were exposed to crude ethanol extracts of flowers, stems, and seeds. Flower extract exhibited the strongest larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 values after 24 h of exposure of 18.61 and 39.86 ppm, respectively, and 9.47 and 21.76 ppm after 48 h. Extracts from stem and seeds were significantly less effective. The flower extract registered a Growth Inhibition Index of 0.01 at 25 ppm, with stems and seeds registering 0.05 and 0.08, respectively, at 100 ppm (control group 1.02). Qualitative chemical analysis by thin-layer chromatography showed characteristic spots indicating the presence of alkaloids and flavonoids and phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids in the various crude extracts. This is the first report of the effectiveness of an ethanol flower extract of A. mexicana on Cx. quinquefasciatus; it can be considered a promising alternative control for this mosquito species.

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Carlos A. Granados-Echegoyen, Manuel Jesús Chan-Bacab, Benjamín Otto Ortega-Morales, Alfonso Vásquez-López, Luicita Lagunez-Rivera, Fidel Diego-Nava, and Christine Gaylarde "Argemone mexicana (Papaverales: Papavaraceae) as an Alternative for Mosquito Control: First Report of Larvicidal Activity of Flower Extract," Journal of Medical Entomology 56(1), 261-267, (18 September 2018). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy159
Received: 29 January 2018; Accepted: 22 August 2018; Published: 18 September 2018
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KEYWORDS
Argemone mexicana
flower extract
larvicidal activity
mosquitocide
phytochemical
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