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26 February 2019 Repellent Effects of Encapsulated Carvacrol on the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)
Aldilene da Silva Lima, Gabriel Alves Landulfo, Livio M. Costa-Junior
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Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) is a problem for livestock production systems, and its control has become challenging due to the selection of tick populations resistant to synthetic chemical acaricides. The use of repellent compounds prevents contact between the arthropod parasite and the host and can, thus, contribute to increases in the efficacy of these acaricides. Carvacrol monoterpenic phenol is a possible alternative method for controlling R. (B.) microplus; however, this compound is highly volatile, and its volatilization can be decreased through microencapsulation, which results in the timed release of the compound. The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be utilized for the protection of volatile molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of yeast cell wall-encapsulated carvacrol on susceptible R. (B.) microplus larvae. Specifically, the vertical filter paper bioassay was employed to analyze the repellent activity of encapsulated carvacrol, nonencapsulated carvacrol, and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide at concentrations ranging from 0.75 to 0.001 mg/cm2, and the repellent activities were evaluated. Both carvacrol and encapsulated carvacrol exhibited repellent effects on R. (B.) microplus larvae, and the encapsulated compound showed the highest repellent activities at the lowest concentrations. Carvacrol encapsulated exhibited a low repellent concentration in all times (≤0.05 mg/cm2), whereas the carvacrol nonencapsulated ranged CR50 from 0.13 to 0.27 mg/cm2 at 1- to 6-h posttreatment. The present paper provides the first description of the use of a microencapsulation technique for achieving the highest repellent effect of carvacrol and indicates that this technique might be used to obtain new delivery systems for volatile and hydrophobic compounds.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Aldilene da Silva Lima, Gabriel Alves Landulfo, and Livio M. Costa-Junior "Repellent Effects of Encapsulated Carvacrol on the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 56(3), 881-885, (26 February 2019).
Received: 4 October 2018; Accepted: 15 December 2018; Published: 26 February 2019

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