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23 May 2019 Entomological Studies in Itaúna, Brazil, an Area With Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission: Fauna Survey, Natural Leishmania Infection, and Molecular Characterization of the Species Circulating in Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)
Josiane V. Lopes, Erika M. Michalsky, Nathalia C. L. Pereira, Adão J. V. de Paula, Fabiana O. Lara-Silva, Rosana Silva-Lana, Consuelo L. Fortes-Dias, Leticia C. Pinheiro, Edelberto S. Dias
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Abstract

Among neglected tropical diseases, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) shows great relevance in global terms and is a serious public health concern due to the possibility of severe and lethal forms in humans. In this study, we evaluate entomological factors such as diversity and abundance of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae) and the Leishmania species circulating in these species in possible association with VL transmission in the Brazilian town Itaúna. The entomological collections were performed during three consecutive nights, always in the third week of each month, within a period of 12 mo. A total of 1,786 sand fly specimens were collected, from which 20% were collected inside houses. The influence of three local climatic variables (temperature, rainfall, relative humidity) on the population sizes of these insects was evaluated. Temperature was the most influential factor, with a significant positive correlation with the local population size of phlebotomine sand flies collected per month. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) was the predominant species in the study area. Leishmania DNA was detected in nine out of 133 pools of sand fly females, using nested/ PCR, which resulted in a minimal natural infection rate of 2.91%. DNA from Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida), was detected in Evandromyia cortelezzii (Bréthes, 1923), Ev. evandroi (Costa, Lima & Antunes, 1936), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), and Ev. termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva, 1964), besides Lu. longipalpis. Our study indicates favorable conditions for VL spreading in Itaúna due to the presence of Lu. longipalpis and Le. infantum-infected phlebotomine sand flies.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Josiane V. Lopes, Erika M. Michalsky, Nathalia C. L. Pereira, Adão J. V. de Paula, Fabiana O. Lara-Silva, Rosana Silva-Lana, Consuelo L. Fortes-Dias, Leticia C. Pinheiro, and Edelberto S. Dias "Entomological Studies in Itaúna, Brazil, an Area With Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission: Fauna Survey, Natural Leishmania Infection, and Molecular Characterization of the Species Circulating in Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 56(5), 1368-1376, (23 May 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz061
Received: 17 November 2018; Accepted: 28 March 2019; Published: 23 May 2019
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KEYWORDS
Leishmania infantum
Lutzomyia longipalpis
phlebotomine sand fly
visceral leishmaniasis
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