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18 May 2019 Baculoviral Expression of Presumptive OP-Resistance Mutations in BmAChE1 of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Biochemical Resistance to OP Inhibition
Kevin B. Temeyer, Kristie G. Schlechte, William P. McDonough
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The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), transmits bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, and is endemic to Mexico, Latin and South America. Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus infestations within the United States are a continuing threat to U.S. cattle producers. An importation barrier between Texas and Mexico keeps the ticks from re-entering the United States. All cattle imported into the United States are dipped in an organophosphate (OP) acaricide and hand inspected for presence of ticks. Tick resistance has developed to most available acaricides, including coumaphos, the OP used in the cattle dip vats. OP-resistance can result from one or more mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in production of an altered AChE resistant to OP inhibition. Previous research reported a large number of BmAChE1 mutations associated with OP resistance. We report baculovirus expression of recombinant tick BmAChE1 (rBmAChE) enzymes containing a single resistance-associated mutation, to assess their contribution to OP inhibition resistance. Surprisingly, of the naturally occurring BmAChE1 resistance-associated mutations, only D188G resulted in markedly reduced sensitivity to OP-inhibition suggesting that OP-insensitivity in BmAChE1 may result from the D188G mutation, or may possibly result from multiple mutations, each contributing a small decrease in OP sensitivity. Furthermore, an OP-insensitivity mutation (G119S) found in mosquitoes was expressed in rBmAChE1, resulting in 500-2000-fold decreased sensitivity to OP inhibition. Recombinant BmAChE1 with the G119S mutation demonstrated the lack of any structural prohibition to broad and high-level OP-insensitivity, suggesting potential increases in tick OP-resistance that would threaten the U.S. importation barrier to ticks.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2019. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Kevin B. Temeyer, Kristie G. Schlechte, and William P. McDonough "Baculoviral Expression of Presumptive OP-Resistance Mutations in BmAChE1 of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Biochemical Resistance to OP Inhibition," Journal of Medical Entomology 56(5), 1318-1323, (18 May 2019).
Received: 27 September 2018; Accepted: 9 April 2019; Published: 18 May 2019

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acaricide resistance
cattle fever tick
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