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28 May 2019 Sodium Ascorbate as a Potential Toxicant in Attractive Sugar Baits for Control of Adult Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)
Emily G. McDermott, Erin K. Morris, Lindsey S. Garver
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Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs) can be an effective vector control tool, especially in areas where aerial or aquatic applications of pesticides are undesirable or impractical. In general, there is a need to develop novel or alternative insecticides for vector control, and there is a demand from consumers for more ‘natural' pest control products. Sodium ascorbate (SA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant compound, found in fruits and vegetables, and is available commercially in the United States as a food additive and supplement. In this study, we continuously exposed groups of adult Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva; Diptera: Psychodidae) to ATSBs containing SA in concentrations of 6, 8, 10, and 20%, and tracked their mortality over 10 d. We also exposed insects to a 20% SA–ATSB on a single day to determine the effect of a single exposure to the bait on mortality. Concentrations of ≥8% SA significantly reduced survival of both mosquito species over 10 d compared with sugar-fed controls. Sand fly mortality was inconsistent. A single exposure to 20% SA significantly reduced the survival of An. stephensi. Mosquitoes exposed to SA exhibited elevated catalase levels and cell death. The use of SA in ATSBs may be most effective in areas where sugar sources are scarce, and where mosquito species frequently sugar-feed. SA sugar baits may be a particularly attractive option for the general public looking to control mosquito populations using ‘natural’ alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2019. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Emily G. McDermott, Erin K. Morris, and Lindsey S. Garver "Sodium Ascorbate as a Potential Toxicant in Attractive Sugar Baits for Control of Adult Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 56(5), 1359-1367, (28 May 2019).
Received: 18 January 2019; Accepted: 29 April 2019; Published: 28 May 2019

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Aedes aegypti
Anopheles stephensi
attractive toxic sugar bait
Lutzomyia longipalpis
Phlebotomus papatasi
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