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24 September 2019 West Nile Virus: Veterinary Health and Vaccine Development
Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Richard A. Bowen
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West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) was discovered in Africa more than 80 yr ago and became recognized as an avian pathogen and a cause of neurologic disease in horses largely during periodic incursions into Europe. Introduction of WNV into North America stimulated great anxiety, particularly in the equine industry, but also for pet owners and livestock producers concerned about the effect of WNV on other domestic animals. Numerous subsequent studies of naturally occurring and experimentally induced disease greatly expanded our understanding of the host range and clinical consequences of WNV infection in diverse species and led to rapid development and deployment of efficacious vaccines for horses. In addition to humans, horses are clearly the animals most frequently affected by serious, sometimes lethal disease following infection with WNV, but are dead-end hosts due to the low-magnitude viremia they develop. Dogs, cats, and livestock species including chickens are readily infected with WNV, but only occasionally develop clinical disease and are considered dead-end hosts for the virus.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Angela M. Bosco-Lauth and Richard A. Bowen "West Nile Virus: Veterinary Health and Vaccine Development," Journal of Medical Entomology 56(6), 1463-1466, (24 September 2019).
Received: 16 May 2019; Accepted: 2 July 2019; Published: 24 September 2019

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domestic animal
West Nile virus
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