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19 March 2020 Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus by Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae)
John F. Anderson, Andrew J. Main, Francis J. Ferrandino
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West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) first caused human and veterinary disease, and was isolated from Culex pipiens pipiens L. and Aedes vexans (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States in 1999. We report that a Connecticut strain of Ae. vexans was competent to transmit West Nile virus both horizontally to suckling mice and vertically to its progeny in the laboratory. Horizontal transmission was first observed on day 6 post-exposure (pe). Daily horizontal transmission rates generally increased with the day post-virus exposure with highest rates of 67–100% recorded on days 28–30 pe. One female vertically transmitted West Nile virus on day 21 pe, but only after it had taken its third bloodmeal. Horizontal and vertical transmission may contribute to West Nile virus infection rates in Ae. vexans in summer, and vertical transmission provides a means of survival of West Nile virus during winter.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
John F. Anderson, Andrew J. Main, and Francis J. Ferrandino "Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus by Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 57(5), 1614-1618, (19 March 2020).
Received: 23 September 2019; Accepted: 19 February 2020; Published: 19 March 2020

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Aedes vexans
horizontal transmission
vertical transmission
West Nile virus
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