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9 June 2020 Selection, Reversion, and Characterization of House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Behavioral Resistance to the Insecticide Imidacloprid
Caleb B. Hubbard, Alec C. Gerry
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Insecticide resistance in pest populations is an increasing problem in both urban and rural settings caused by over-application of insecticides and lack of rotation among chemical classes. The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a cosmopolitan fly species implicated in the transmission of numerous pathogens, and which can be extremely pestiferous when present in high numbers. The evolution of insecticide resistance has long been documented in house flies, with resistance reported to all major insecticide classes. House fly resistance to imidacloprid, the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticide available for fly control, has been selected for in field populations through both physiological and behavioral resistance mechanisms. In the current study, house flies collected from a southern California dairy were selectively bred for behavioral resistance to imidacloprid, without increasing the physiological resistance profile of the selected flies. Flies were also successfully selected for behavioral susceptibility to imidacloprid. The rapid selection for either behavioral resistance or behavioral susceptibility suggests that inheritable alleles conferring behavioral resistance were already present in the wild-type fly population collected from the dairy site. The methods used for the specific selection of behavioral resistance (or susceptibility) in the fly population will be useful for further studies on the specific mechanisms conferring this resistance. House fly behavioral resistance was further investigated using behavioral observation and feeding preference assays, with resistance determined to be both contact-dependent and specific to the insecticide (imidacloprid) rather than to a non-insecticidal component of a bait matrix as previously documented.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Caleb B. Hubbard and Alec C. Gerry "Selection, Reversion, and Characterization of House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Behavioral Resistance to the Insecticide Imidacloprid," Journal of Medical Entomology 57(6), 1843-1851, (9 June 2020).
Received: 9 March 2020; Accepted: 7 May 2020; Published: 9 June 2020

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