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15 July 2020 The Effects of High-Altitude Windborne Migration on Survival, Oviposition, and Blood-Feeding of the African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Zana L. Sanogo, Alpha S. Yaro, Adama Dao, Moussa Diallo, Ousman Yossi, Djibril Samaké, Benjamin J. Krajacich, Roy Faiman, Tovi Lehmann
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Abstract

Recent results of high-altitude windborne mosquito migration raised questions about the viability of these mosquitoes despite ample evidence that many insect species, including other dipterans, have been known to migrate regularly over tens or hundreds of kilometers on high-altitude winds and retain their viability. To address these concerns, we subjected wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles mosquitoes to a high-altitude survival assay, followed by oviposition (egg laying) and blood feeding assays. Despite carrying out the survival assay under exceptionally harsh conditions that probably provide the lowest survival potential following high altitude flight, a high proportion of the mosquitoes survived for 6- and even 11-h assay durations at 120- to 250-m altitudes. Minimal differences in egg laying success were noted between mosquitoes exposed to high altitude survival assay and those kept near the ground. Similarly, minimal differences were found in the female's ability to take an additional bloodmeal after oviposition between these groups. We conclude that similar to other high-altitude migrating insects, mosquitoes are able to withstand extended high-altitude flight and subsequently reproduce and transmit pathogens by blood feeding on new hosts.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2020. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Zana L. Sanogo, Alpha S. Yaro, Adama Dao, Moussa Diallo, Ousman Yossi, Djibril Samaké, Benjamin J. Krajacich, Roy Faiman, and Tovi Lehmann "The Effects of High-Altitude Windborne Migration on Survival, Oviposition, and Blood-Feeding of the African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 58(1), 343-349, (15 July 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa137
Received: 22 April 2020; Accepted: 12 June 2020; Published: 15 July 2020
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KEYWORDS
altitude
disease-vector
egg-laying
long-range dispersal
wind
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