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11 November 2020 Novel CONCOMITANT mutations L932F and I936V in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel and Its Association With Pyrethroid Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Masaaki Sugiura, Fumiko Kimoto, Kentaro Itokawa, Shinji Kasai
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Abstract

Highly residual pyrethroids such as permethrin have been used for controlling mosquitoes that transmit infectious diseases. However, the selective pressure from such insecticides may result in cross-resistance against other pyrethroids used for household insecticides. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus Say collected from Brazil and Myanmar to permethrin in addition to four types of household pyrethroids. Both strains exhibited high resistance against all pyrethroids tested, indicating cross-resistance. Furthermore, we detected the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations L932F+I936V in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) in the Brazilian strain. Notably, the L932F+I936V haplotype has previously been observed in in silico data, but it should be detected not directly from living insects. In comparison, a common kdr mutation, L1014F, was detected from the Myanmar strain. Although L1014F was also detected from the Brazilian strain, the allele frequency was too low to affect resistance. Both strains harbored the resistance-associated haplotypes of the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP9M10. The Brazilian strain demonstrated comparable resistance against pyrethroids as that of the Myanmar strain even when a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide was added to the bioassay. Our results suggested that the L932F+I936V mutations confer the Brazilian strain of Cx. Quiquefasciatus with resistance at a comparable level to that conferred by the well-recognized kdr mutation L1014F in the Myanmar strain. The identification of unexplored mutations may improve the diagnosis and understanding of resistance of this medically important species.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Masaaki Sugiura, Fumiko Kimoto, Kentaro Itokawa, and Shinji Kasai "Novel CONCOMITANT mutations L932F and I936V in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel and Its Association With Pyrethroid Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 58(2), 798-806, (11 November 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa238
Received: 19 July 2020; Accepted: 25 September 2020; Published: 11 November 2020
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KEYWORDS
I936V
kdr
L932F
pyrethroids
resistance
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