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28 May 2021 Identification of Chemicals Associated Gambusia affinis (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), and Their Effect on Oviposition Behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Laboratory
Adena M. Why, Dong-Hwan Choe, William E. Walton
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Abstract

The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard), has been used worldwide for the control of larval mosquitoes for more than 100 yr. We found that the western encephalitis mosquito, Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae), can detect the presence of G. affinis in oviposition sites based on associated chemicals, leading to a decrease in the number of egg rafts laid. Three volatile chemical compounds were identified in the headspace above the water where G. affinis had been held for 24 h. Oviposition bioassays conducted using standards of the volatile compounds identified (dimethyl disulfide [DMDS], dimethyl trisulfide [DMTS], and S-methyl methanethiosulphonate) found that females reduced oviposition only when low concentrations of DMTS were present, but this response was not consistent across all trials and concentrations tested. DMDS, DMTS, and S-methyl methanethiosulphonate are known bacterial metabolic waste products and may be the source of the compounds. Two nonvolatile compounds of interest were found to be present in the Gambusia-exudate water. After tasting Cx. tarsalis were deterred from ovipositing onto Gambusia-treated water from which the bacteria had been removed by filtration, indicating that the kairomone may consist of nonvolatile compound(s). One of the nonvolatile compounds isolated from the Gambusia-treated water has a benzene ring structure similar to that of cholesterol but the structure of the two nonvolatile deterrents remains to be fully characterized. Our research shows that three volatile compounds and two nonvolatile compounds are present in water associated with G. affinis (Poeciliidae: Gambusia) and affect the oviposition behavior of Cx. tarsalis in laboratory bioassays.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Adena M. Why, Dong-Hwan Choe, and William E. Walton "Identification of Chemicals Associated Gambusia affinis (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), and Their Effect on Oviposition Behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Laboratory," Journal of Medical Entomology 58(6), 2075-2090, (28 May 2021). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjab078
Received: 3 February 2021; Accepted: 8 April 2021; Published: 28 May 2021
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KEYWORDS
deterrent
mosquito
mosquitofish
semiochemical
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