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13 September 2021 Cananga odorata (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) Essential Oil Produces Significant Avoidance Behavior in Mosquitoes
Chutipong Sukkanon, Jirod Nararak, Michael J. Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
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Abstract

Essential oil of Cananga odorata Hook. F. & Tomson is a source of insect repellent, but contact irritancy and noncontact repellency actions that stimulate insect's avoidance behavior (escape away from chemical source after direct physical contact or without making physical contact, respectively) have not been investigated. Therefore, an excito-repellency test chamber was used for measuring avoidance behavior of four insectary-reared mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) that escape from esposure to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) of C. odorata oil. The oil strongly repelled both Culex quinquefasciatus Say (85–97% escape) and Anopheles minimus Theobald (97–99%) at high concentrations (2.5–5.0%). For Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrison and Aedes aegypti (L.), highest repellency (64 and 39% escape, respectively) was demonstrated at 2.5% concentration. For contact irritancy, the oil produced relatively high percent escape found in Cx. quinquefasciatus (90–100% escape) and An. minimus (83–100%). Whereas moderate contact irritancy was observed against An. dirus (40–50% escape) and Ae. aegypti (51–59%).The percent escape was then adjusted with repellency to estimate the effect of contact irritancy alone.We found that highest contact irritancy was presented at 0.5% concentration against An. minimus (67% escape). Knockdown and toxic actions were only found in Anopheles mosquitoes at 5.0% concentration.The results revealed that An. minimus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were more prone to be repelled by C. odorata oil. Detailed analysis of oil identified primary compounds as methyl benzoate (14.6%), α-gurjunene (12.8%), p-methyl-anisole (11.3%), and benzyl acetate (9.9%). Further investigations are needed to assess excito-repellency actions of these compounds alone or in combination.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Chutipong Sukkanon, Jirod Nararak, Michael J. Bangs, and Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap "Cananga odorata (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) Essential Oil Produces Significant Avoidance Behavior in Mosquitoes," Journal of Medical Entomology 59(1), 291-300, (13 September 2021). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjab143
Received: 9 May 2021; Accepted: 29 July 2021; Published: 13 September 2021
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KEYWORDS
Aedes
Anopheles
Culex
excito-repellency
repellent
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