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29 October 2021 Chronobiological Effect on the Reproductive Behavior of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Feng-Hsuan Chen, Shiuh-Feng Shiao
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The most widely used entomological method of determining the time since death (minimum postmortem interval, mPMI) has been calculating the developmental time of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the deceased body. However, because blow flies are known to be diurnal, nocturnal oviposition has been excluded from standard mPMI calculations. This has been challenged by recent studies demonstrating nocturnal oviposition due to an unknown reason. Therefore, this study investigated the role of chronobiology.We recorded the locomotion amount and pattern of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under different chronobiological conditions and examined whether Ch. megacephala can oviposit under nighttime conditions in field and laboratory settings. Subjects were found to have a daily activity pattern under normal darkness conditions (12:12 L:D) and under continuous darkness (DD), but they exhibited no pattern under continuous light (LL). Free-running period was approximately 1,341 min/d (22.35 h/d). In the field, no flies were observed during nighttime. Oviposition occurred in the laboratory setting during daytime with no lights and during nighttime with artificial lights. Free-running subjects oviposited in both active and resting periods, with more eggs laid during active than resting periods. The result of this study indicates it is possible to induce oviposition behavior during evening hours on Ch. megacephala. However, this was only observed in the laboratory setting and could only happen during the flies' subjective day.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Feng-Hsuan Chen and Shiuh-Feng Shiao "Chronobiological Effect on the Reproductive Behavior of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)," Journal of Medical Entomology 59(1), 135-146, (29 October 2021).
Received: 20 July 2021; Accepted: 24 September 2021; Published: 29 October 2021

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circadian rhythm
forensic entomology
nocturnal oviposition
Oriental latrine fly
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