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5 January 2022 Spinosyns Delivered in Sugar Meals to Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): Acute Toxicity and Subacute Effects on Survival, Fecundity, and Fertility
Abdullah A. Alomar, Barry W. Alto, Edward D. Walker
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Abstract

Sugar is an essential source of nutrition for adult mosquitoes to acquire energy. Toxic sugar bait (TSB) provides a promising method for mosquito control by incorporating toxins into artificial sources of sugar (i.e., toxic baits) presented to wild populations. Spinosyns comprise a family of bacterial secondary metabolites with a unique mode of action against the insect nervous system, an appealing environmental safety profile, and potential for incorporation into sugar baits.This research evaluated acute and subacute effects of spinosad (spinosyns A and D) and spinetoram (spinosyns J and L) in sugar meals on survival, fecundity, and fertility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Acute toxicity of spinosyns doubled from 24 to 48 h of assessment, revealing a relatively slow and cumulative action of the formulated spinosyns. Median lethal concentrations at 48 h were lower for spinetoram than for spinosad, lower for Ae. albopictus than Ae. aegypti, and lower for males than females. When exposed to subacute LC50 concentrations of spinosad and spinetoram for 24 h, survival of males and females of both species was diminished compared with controls, fecundity of females was increased, but fertility as measured by hatch rate of eggs was decreased. The formulations may have increased the nutritive value of the sugar meals thereby boosting fecundity, while toxifying embryos, reducing fertility. The inclusion of subacute effects of spinosyns allows assessment of the broader consequences of TSB for adult mosquito control.

© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Abdullah A. Alomar, Barry W. Alto, and Edward D. Walker "Spinosyns Delivered in Sugar Meals to Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): Acute Toxicity and Subacute Effects on Survival, Fecundity, and Fertility," Journal of Medical Entomology 59(2), 623-630, (5 January 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjab220
Received: 27 August 2021; Accepted: 3 December 2021; Published: 5 January 2022
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KEYWORDS
Aedes
fitness
oral feeding
sexual dimorphism
Toxic sugar bait
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